A hot bath can partially replace physical exercise

Treatment hot baths helps to reduce inflammation and blood sugar levels in people unable to perform physical exercise, according to a new study published in the Journal of Applied Psysiology.

The physical stress in the form of exercise can cause a transient increase in inflammatory markers. After a workout increases the level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) chemical substances associated with inflammation. In the process of so-called inflammatory response triggers the release of anti-inflammatory substances to counter the unhealthy high levels of inflammation, known as chronic nonspecific inflammation.

Recent studies have shown that the increase in body temperature enhances the inflammatory response and provides a basis for alternatives to the exercises that reduce non-specific inflammation in the body. Previous studies also found a link between the sharp increase in body temperature and the formation of nitric oxide, a substance which promotes blood flow and helps to carry the glucose throughout the body.

The researchers studied markers of inflammation, levels of sugar and insulin in the group of sedentary men with overweight. Participants volunteers were immersed in hot water or sitting for the same time at room temperature (control), between these two types of tests took place at least three days.

The researchers took blood samples before and after staying in the room at a temperature of 27C for 15 minutes. Then, participants either continued to sit in the room, or took a bath with hot water (39S) for 60 minutes, plunging neck-deep into the water. The researchers measured heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature every 15 minutes throughout the period of control and immersion. Blood samples were taken again two hours after each session.

The researchers found that one session of immersion in hot water causes an increase in levels of IL-6 in the blood and increases the production of nitric oxide, but does not change the expression of heat shock protein HSP72 (also important for health). However, a two-week period of treatment by daily hot baths showed a decrease in the level of fasting blood sugar and insulin levels, and reduced nonspecific inflammation at rest.

Men reported discomfort during immersion in hot water that could be associated with high water temperature or length of time in the tub. The researchers acknowledge that these conditions may impede alternative treatment of this kind. However, the positive results of inflammation reduction and the increase in insulin sensitivity suggests that immersion in hot water can improve aspects of the inflammatory profile and improve the metabolism of glucose in sedentary men who are overweight, and may have implications for improving metabolic health in a group of people unable to meet recommendations for physical activity.

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FDA Moves to Restrict Flavored E-Cig Sales, Ban Menthol Cigarettes

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Thursday it will take steps to limit or ban access to flavored e-cigarettes, menthol cigarettes and flavored cigars.

The move against flavored e-cigarettes stops short of the full ban that had been expected from the agency. Instead, sales of these products — thought to be especially alluring to teens — will only be allowed in stores within special closed-off areas made inaccessible to minors, The New York Times reported.

More unexpected was the FDA’s proposed ban on menthol cigarettes and flavored cigars, products which have long been thought to disproportionately harm the health of black Americans.

The menthol ban still has regulatory hurdles to overcome, so removal of those products from the market could take two years, the Times noted.

Still, the move would come as a huge blow to the tobacco industry, since menthols make up more than a third of the cigarette market.

All three moves are aimed at curbing uptake of vaped and smoked nicotine by the young. More than 3.6 million Americans under the age of 18 now vape, the agency noted.

The announcements come after the leading vape maker, Juul Labs, announced Tuesday that it would voluntarily withdraw most flavors of its hugely popular vaping product from the marketplace.

Juul, which controls 70 percent of the e-cigarette market, has come under increasing pressure to do something about the surging popularity of its vaping devices among youth.

In a statement released Tuesday, Juul CEO Kevin Burns said, “Our intent was never to have youth use Juul. But intent is not enough. The numbers are what matter, and the numbers tell us underage use of e-cigarettes is a problem.”

And in a statement released Thursday, FDA Commissioner Dr. Scott Gottlieb noted that “almost all adult smokers started smoking when they were kids. Today, we significantly advance our efforts to combat youth access and appeal with proposals that firmly and directly address the core of the epidemic: flavors.”

Nevertheless, the decision to restrict but not ban flavored e-cigarettes came as a surprise, since leaked documents had suggested a full FDA ban was imminent. In the end, the complex legalities of imposing a ban may have meant drawn-out court battles, something the FDA may have wanted to avoid, legal experts told the Times.

Instead, Gottlieb said that within the next three months, e-cigarette manufacturers should remove the products from “where kids can access them and from online sites that do not have sufficiently robust age-verification procedures.”

Anti-smoking advocates expressed some disappointment at the FDA’s announcement, however.

“We commend the FDA for recognizing the grave threat posed by electronic cigarettes on our children, and for imposing restrictions on manufacturers,” Nancy Brown, CEO of the American Heart Association, said in a statement.

“With e-cigarette use having jumped by 78 percent among high school students and 48 percent among middle school students, the need for action is urgent,” she added. “But limiting the sale of e-cigarettes is not enough — the FDA should also remove flavored e-cigarettes from the market and prohibit companies from marketing their products in ways that appeal to kids.”

And Matt Myers, president of Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, wondered to the Times, “Does this mean a simple curtain with a sign like we used to see at the entrance to the pornography section of video stores?”

Lyle Beckwith, a spokesman for the National Association of Convenience Stores, said his group “will be reviewing the regulation and advising our members accordingly” as to how to best implement the new rules.

He noted that, according to his teenaged son, most minors already get their flavor pods from older youth, not convenience stores.

The FDA first began its crackdown on flavored e-cigarettes earlier this year, as the number of teens using the products reached epidemic proportions, the Times reported. By far, the leading vaping product is made by Juul, whose e-cigarette devices resemble small computer flash drives. Use of Juul has skyrocketed among teens over the past year.

Flavored versions of e-cigarettes — including chicken and waffles, rocket Popsicle and “unicorn milk” — have boosted sales among the young even further, experts contend.

“The availability of flavors in e-cigarettes is one of the top reasons that middle and high school students cite as their motivation for using e-cigarettes,” said Patricia Folan, director of the Center for Tobacco Control at Northwell Health in Great Neck, N.Y. “Young people are more likely to try flavored e-cigarettes and consider them less harmful than tobacco-flavored e-cigarettes.”

The vaping industry has countered that flavored e-cigarettes actually provide a potential health benefit, helping to encourage tobacco smokers to quit.

“Flavors are important for switching,” Dr. Moira Gilchrist, a scientist with Philip Morris International, said during a visit to Washington in October for an FDA public meeting. Phillip Morris hopes to market its IQOS heat-not-burn device in the United States in tobacco and menthol flavors.

“The focus should be on what is the right thing to do for the 40 million men and women in the United States who would otherwise continue to smoke cigarettes,” she said.

As for the ban on menthol cigarettes and flavored cigars — both highly favored by black Americans — challenges lie ahead. The U.S. tobacco industry has long fought hard against such a ban. But health advocates were heartened by the news.

“Studies show that menthol cigarettes increase initiation, especially among youth,” Brown noted. “Menthol also has a disproportionate impact on minorities including African-Americans, who favor menthol cigarettes and find them more difficult to successfully quit.”

Delmonte Jefferson, executive director of the National African American Tobacco Prevention Network, told the Times, “While we’re saddened by the number of lives lost and new smokers addicted over the past decade, we’re pleased that the FDA is moving in this direction.”

The group also praised the agency for taking on flavored cigars.

“Little cigars like Black & Milds and Swisher Sweets are heavily marketed to African Americans and are often cheaper in our neighborhoods,” said LaTroya Hester, a spokesman for the network. “A lot of young, black kids don’t know that cigarillos are just as dangerous, so hopefully this will send that message. This is a huge step in protecting their health. It’s about time our young people are prioritized.”

More information

The U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse has more about e-cigarettes.

Posted: November 2018

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Syphilis is back: the disease makes it so tricky

The increase in the number of Syphilis infections in Germany is continuing. In the past year, nearly 7500 cases of the sexually transmitted disease were reported. Particularly in the big cities affected by the spread.

The Robert Koch Institute will examine Syphilis notifications since 2017 with an algorithm to avoid Multiple reporting of individual cases. In the current publication of the algorithm unit was applied also on figures of previous years, this can lead to deviations in comparison to older Reports.

This was an increase of 4.2 percent compared to the year 2016. In particular, in Berlin and Hamburg, ill, according to the report, in relation to the number of inhabitants above average, a lot of people.

Numbers continue to grow internationally

Since 2010, the RKI watch experts pay again a continuous increase of the case, are frequently affected gay men. In particular, in the 80s, the bacterial infection had been pushed back, with the spread of HIV/Aids and Safer Sex.

Meanwhile, a HIV-infection as a chronic disease treatable, if not curable. The return of Syphilis may have to do, according to the experts with a higher frequency of condom, abstinence from Sex among men. The come even with changing partners, it said, citing surveys.

The Syphilis Numbers rise internationally. In their report, the experts underline that measures for the prevention, diagnosis and therapy should be further developed. The increase is but in part also to better test offers. HIV-Infected were often diagnosed – probably because you receive a regular Screening is offered.

Early detection is only in a few patients

Often Syphilis usually has no symptoms. In other cases, a few days or weeks, and usually occurs after infection, an ulcer, for example, on the Penis that causes no pain. If left untreated, further symptoms can follow from a fever, fatigue, head, joint, muscle or lymph nodes pain and swollen up to the skin changes.

Years after the infection, some damage to the brain and the blood vessels are possible. Yet Syphilis is detected only in a fraction of the patients at an early stage.

Infection and incubation period

In General, the bacterial species Treponema palladium in unprotected sex will be transmitted, through the smallest of injuries to the skin and mucous membranes. In rare cases, Syphilis can be transmitted during pregnancy to the unborn child through the placenta.

The incubation period, the time from infection until the onset of the disease, depends on the number of ingested pathogens. In General, this period is 14 to 24 days.

First Symptoms: Primary Syphilis

The first stadium of a Syphilis (Lues I), is the primary Syphilis. After the incubation period, a painless dark or red spot or a hard nodule is formed at the location where the pathogens in the body. In men this is usually on the glans or foreskin, in women this Symptom usually occurs on the labia.

Within a few days, the nodules converts to a flat and pain-free ulcer. At the same time the neighboring lymph nodes swell. As these symptoms healed after four to six weeks by itself, is not recognized Syphilis in this stage often.

Secondary Syphilis: The Treponema pallidum spreads

If left untreated, the Treponema pallidum is spreading in the following four weeks by the blood in the body. The Phase of secondary Syphilis (Lues II) identifies various skin and mucosal changes. In addition, flu similar symptoms, such as fever, joint pain, swelling of the Lymph nodes.

After about ten weeks, the Patient gets a skin rash. It can also lead to hair loss. Especially in Places with strong sweat formation and in skin folds weeping pustules, which are called Condylomata lata. These are, if they crumble, very contagious. After about two to three months, all the skin lesions heal completely.

Latency Stage: Symptom Free Period

On the second stage, a symptom-free period usually follows. Up to five years, Syphilis can lie dormant in a standstill with no obvious symptoms. The risk of contagion decreases slowly with time.

In the case of about 30 to 40 percent of Patients symptoms of Syphilis do not show until after three to five years. In some cases, even after ten years. In other cases, it is a life-long-lasting stage of the disease without any external signs of the disease.

Tertiary stage: infestation of the muscles, skin and organs

When you break Through the latency time, the tertiary Syphilis (Lues III) begins. The Treponema palladium affects the organs, and destroyed muscles, and skin.

The pathogen spreads throughout the body and affects internal organs such as the stomach, liver, bones, muscles, and blood trails. It nodes, the harden is often rubber-like form. On the skin can form large ulcers that can also bone break.

Neurosyphilis: In the fourth stage, destruction of the brain

About 20 percent of the Affected ten to 20 years after the beginning of the Syphilis severe neurological symptoms. This final stage (Lues IV) is also called Neurosyphilis, as here, the nervous system, the brain and spinal cord are affected. The Neurosyphilis begins with inflammation of the meninges. It comes to vision problems. If left untreated, identify language problems, amnesia, dementia, and paralysis this Phase. The Neurosyphilis ends with death.

On the basis of the more Mature methods of treatment came for many decades and is increasingly rare in a fourth stage of Syphilis. In the last few years, the final stage, however, appears to be increasing. The reason for this is that a Lues-the disease meets seldom with HIV infection. Because HIV-positive syphilis patients are more likely to Lues IV.

The treatment of Syphilis

As Syphilis is treated primarily with Penicillin. Only in the case of Penicillin intolerance, it is the Dodge necessary, to other antibiotics. The dose and duration of treatment depend on the stage of the disease.

The earlier the treatment begins, the quicker a cure of the Syphilis may occur. Syphilis is among the reportable diseases. As soon as a doctor puts a Syphilis disease, he is obliged to send an anonymous message to the Robert-Koch-Institute. This allows for a good documentation of the disease and its expansion.

Breast Cancer Recurrence Rate Not Up With Autologous Fat Transfer

THURSDAY, Nov. 15, 2018 — For patients with breast cancer, reconstruction with autologous fat transfer (AFT) seems not to increase the rate of locoregional recurrence versus conventional breast reconstruction, according to a study published online Oct. 10 in JAMA Surgery.

Todor Krastev, M.D., Ph.D., from the Maastricht University Medical Center in the Netherlands, and colleagues matched 287 patients with 300 affected breasts receiving AFT between 2006 and 2014 to 300 nonexposed control patients based on age, type of oncologic surgery, tumor invasiveness, and disease stage. AFT patients were followed for a mean of 9.3 years, including 5.0 years following AFT; control patients were followed for a mean of 8.6 years after primary surgery.

The researchers identified eight locoregional recurrences in the treatment group and 11 among the control group, for an unadjusted hazard ratio of 0.63 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.25 to 1.60; P = 0.33). In relevant subgroups based on the type of oncologic surgery, tumor invasiveness, or pathologic stage, there were no increased locoregional recurrence rates. With respect to distant recurrences or breast cancer-specific mortality, no increased risks were detected with AFT.

“In line with reported rates from other published matched cohorts, there is no clinical evidence so far to suggest that AFT leads to increased rates of cancer relapse in patients with breast cancer,” the authors write.

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Posted: November 2018

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8 Women Reveal the Tinder Opening Line They Actually Responded to

It’s not always easy to break the ice—especially on a dating app. And sadly, when it comes to apps like Tinder, men are usually expected to make the first move. That’s a lot of pressure!

Even if you come up with a perfect opening line, chances are it usually won’t get a response. That’s because women are constantly inundated with messages from guys who think they’re being clever, when in fact, they’re just coming off as creepy. Most women can smell a traditional pickup line from a mile away, which is why you have to put in the extra effort to be engaging and creative.

Instead of becoming one of those matches that sits idly in an empty text box, try these tips for dating app opening lines that verified ladies themselves have approved. Who knows? You might just get a drink or two out of it.

Break barriers.

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We say to hell with tradition! It’s nearly 2019. Time to shake things up. Put the ball in her court and encourage her to make the first move. And even more points to you if you do it with a wry sense of humor.

“The best opening like I’ve ever heard was: ‘I’m bad at this, so I’m going to buck the Tinder trend and let you make the first move, if that’s okay.’” —Ann, 29.

Ask her two questions.

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Women like options. We also like to feel special. Give us both by asking us two specific questions about ourselves, whether it’s “So I see you like The West Wing. Do you identify more with Josh or Toby?” or “Love the photo of you in Venice—what was the best restaurant you went to there?”

“I always like when men begin with two questions. Not just any questions — questions specific to my profile. I like when they show they’ve looked past my pictures and are taking an interest in the things I have said. I prefer two questions because if I don’t want to answer one, I have a second option.” —Brooke, 30

Focus on your profile over your pics.

Getty ImagesYiu Yu Hoi

This cannot be stressed enough. Every woman we spoke with emphasized that interest in their profile is much more important to them than interest in their photos. Make this your Golden Rule: when you send your opening message, ask about things she’s written on her profile, in addition to what you can see from her photos.

“The most important part, for me, is that a guy opts for my profile over my pictures. Yes, we all put up pictures that make us look attractive, but hopefully you’re looking to actually talk to me, as well. Any attempt at personalization is awesome. Steer clear of the pet names.” —Lauren, 28

Flattery will get you…everywhere.

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You don’t have to be a suck-up, but a simple compliment never goes out of style. People like to feel attractive. If you combine a compliment about their physical appearance with one about their likes/interests, then you’ve got this in the bag.

“My favorite opening line probably has to be a compliment. Not a sexual one, but one that shows I caught their attention in some way. Yes, it can be about my pictures and appearance, but nothing derogatory or implying that I’m getting naked for you.” —Sally, 32

Use artistry.

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It’s 2017, but old-fashioned whimsy never goes out of style.

“One guy told me an entire story about our potential first date using only emojis. On the one hand, it showed he had a lot of time on his hand, but on the other it made me smile and showed he was creative and had a sense of humor.” —Gabby, 30

Offering to buy her food never hurts.

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Women on Tinder don’t want a pen pal. We are looking for someone to date. Put it out there right away that not only are you interested, but you’re going to take the initiative and ask us out. And if you make the explicit offer to buy us food, so much the better.

“I like keeping it light, but also practical. Ask me something random, like ‘Hawaiian or pepperoni?’ And then buy me pizza.” —Susan, 31

Pay attention to her photos and bio

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If you’re feeling her style, pay attention to her pictures. Ask thoughtful questions based on actual facts she has presented about herself. Read about her interests ad look at the activities she’s engaged in in photos.

“Tinder is a hellscape most of the time. I don’t want to see the word ‘hey.’ I want to see that you’ve read what I wrote in my bio and are present enough to ask me about it. It makes you stand out from the crowd. We ladies get plenty of weird pick up lines from random dudes. It may seem like a low bar, but paying attention to detail goes a really long way. If she’s hiking with her best friend in one of her photos, tell her how fun the hike looked. Ask if she goes hiking often. It will help you in the long run.” —Jasmine, 29

Don’t be afraid to be vulnerable

Getty ImagesTim Robberts

She’s on a dating app and she doesn’t expect you to be a bleeding-heart emotional mess, but that doesn’t mean you can’t show vulnerability. Being able to shine through as a genuine, thoughtful person will make her feel at ease.

“I respond to guys who are sincerely nice, not meaning ones who refer to themselves as nice. That’s a huge red flag. I like a guy who tells me details about his life and passions right away. Showing you’re not scared to open up about things in your life shows that you’re not a huge tool bag, but someone worth getting to know. Just remember, tell the truth. We always know when you’re lying!” —Gabby, 27

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Why early diagnosis of autism should lead to early intervention

Research suggests children can be reliably diagnosed with autism before the age of two. It also shows that many of the behavioural symptoms of autism are present before the age of one.

These behaviours include decreased interest in social interaction, delayed development of speech and intentional communication, a lack of age-appropriate sound development, and unusual visual fixations.

Preliminary results of a study in the Wellington region indicate most children are diagnosed when they are around three years old. However, there is arguably little point of providing early diagnosis if it does not lead to evidence-based early intervention.

Early start

The Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) is a promising therapy for very young children (between one and five years) with, or at risk for, autism. ESDM uses play and games to build positive relationships in which the children are encouraged to boost language, social and cognitive skills.

Where ESDM differs most from traditional intervention is that behavioural teaching techniques are embedded within this play. This includes providing clear cues for a behaviour, and rewarding that behaviour. Parents, therapists and teachers can use ESDM techniques within the children’s play and daily routines to help them reach developmentally appropriate milestones.

For example, a child who does not yet talk, may be learning to reach for preferred items. A child who has a lot of language may be learning to answer questions like “what is your name?”.

Initial research conducted in the United States, where the model was developed, suggests that ESDM is particularly effective when implemented for more than 15 hours a week by trained therapists in the home environment.

Improved cognition in early childhood

The model was adopted in Australia where the government funds autism specific early childhood centres. Research conducted in these centres indicates that children receiving ESDM intervention from trained therapists show greater improvements in understanding and cognitive skills than children who were not receiving treatment.

In New Zealand there is no government funding for such therapy. As a result, the cost of providing this intensive level of early intervention is beyond the budget of most families. There is also a lack of trained professionals with the technical expertise to implement such therapies.

For these reasons, we are working with the Autism Intervention Trust and Autism New Zealand to develop a New Zealand-specific low-intensity approach to delivering ESDM. The team is using the research of what is effective overseas and is applying it within a New Zealand context.

Mainstream schooling

New Zealand takes an inclusive approach to education. The main goal of the research programme therefore is for children with autism and their families to receive support earlier so that they can get a better start in their development and go on to mainstream schools.

One project involves training kindergarten teachers in ESDM. Inclusion of ESDM strategies in kindergartens is the biggest unknown because there is little teacher training in New Zealand around how to best support children with autism in mainstream settings.

A second project involves providing parent coaching and then adding on a small amount of one-on-one therapy. This will provide some preliminary evidence as to whether adding a minimal amount of one-on-one therapy is any more beneficial that just coaching parents.

Each project involves examining specific measures of communication, imitation (a key early learning skill children with autism typically struggle with) and social engagement with others.

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How exercise could help fight drug addiction

The siren call of addictive drugs can be hard to resist, and returning to the environment where drugs were previously taken can make resistance that much harder. However, addicts who exercise appear to be less vulnerable to the impact of these environmental cues. Now, research with mice suggests that exercise might strengthen a drug user’s resolve by altering the production of peptides in the brain, according to a study in the journal ACS Omega.

Re-exposure to drug-related cues, such as the location where drugs were taken, the people with whom they were taken or drug paraphernalia, can cause even recovered drug abusers to relapse. Prior studies have shown that exercise can reduce craving and relapse in addicts, as well as mice. Although the mechanism was unknown, exercise was thought to alter the learned association between drug-related cues and the rewarding sensations of taking a drug, possibly by changing the levels of peptides in the brain. Jonathan Sweedler, Justin Rhodes and colleagues at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign decided to explore this theory by quantifying these peptide changes in mice.

Mice were given cocaine injections over four days in special chambers with a distinctive floor texture to produce a drug association with that environment. The animals were then housed for 30 days in cages, some of which included a running wheel. The researchers found that mice that exercised on these wheels had lower levels of brain peptides related to myelin, a substance that is thought to help fix memories in place. Re-exposure to the cocaine-associated environment affected running and sedentary mice differently: Compared with sedentary mice, the animals with running wheels showed a reduced preference for the cocaine-associated environment. In addition, the brains of re-exposed runners contained higher levels of hemoglobin-derived peptides, some of which are involved in cell signaling in the brain. Meanwhile, peptides derived from actin decreased in the brains of re-exposed sedentary mice. Actin is involved in learning and memory and is implicated in drug seeking. The researchers say these findings related to peptide changes will help to identify biomarkers for drug dependence and relapse.

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Rest easy: Insomnia does NOT cause an early death

Rest easy: Insomnia does NOT cause an early death, finds largest study ever into lack of sleep

  • Review of more than 36m people found no evidence it affects mortality
  • But critic argues while most can cope with insomnia, it is serious for some
  • Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder; affects 10-to-30% of people 
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Insomnia sufferers should rest easy as the largest ever study into the lack of sleep found it does not cause an early death.

A review of more than 36million people revealed there is no evidence struggling to nod off or waking in the night affects mortality.

But a critic argues that while the majority may be able to cope with a few sleepless nights, for some the health consequences can be devastating.


The largest ever study into lack of sleep found insomnia does not cause an early death (stock)

In the first review of its kind, researchers from Flinders University, Adelaide, analysed 17 studies investigating a possible link between insomnia and mortality.

The studies were carried out all over the world for an average of 11 years. Most were made up of patients who self-reported insomnia, while some were officially diagnosed.

Insomnia was defined as either being frequent – struggling to nod off on three or more nights a week – or ongoing – sleeplessness lasting more than a month.

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Results suggest that while insomnia may lead to everything from depression and anxiety to diabetes and dementia, it does not actually affect a person’s lifespan.

The study was published in the journal Sleep Medicine Reviews. 

The researchers, led by Dr Nicole Lovato, believe this should reassure those who toss and turn at night that they are not more likely to pass away prematurely.

WHAT IS INSOMNIA?

Insomnia means you regularly have problems sleeping. It usually gets better by changing your sleeping habits.

You have insomnia if you regularly: find it hard to go to sleep, wake up several times during the night, lie awake at night, wake up early and can’t go back to sleep, still feel tired after waking up

Everyone needs different amounts of sleep. On average, adults need 7 to 9 hours, while children need 9 to 13 hours.

You probably don’t get enough sleep if you’re constantly tired during the day.

The most common causes of insomnia are: stress, anxiety or depression, excessive noise, an uncomfortable bed or alcohol, caffeine or nicotine.

Insomnia usually gets better by changing your sleeping habits. For example, going to bed and waking up at the same time every day, and only going to bed when you feel tired.

Source: NHS

But, they stress, only 17 studies were analysed, which all had a relatively short follow-up time. Longer trials are therefore required to confirm the findings.

They also note cognitive behavioural therapy, which aims to help insomniacs develop coping skills, correct attitudes about sleep and modify poor habits, remains the gold standard of treatment.   

But Dr Russell Foster, head of the Sleep and Circadian Neuroscience Institute at the University of Oxford, argues insomnia can be serious for some.

He told The Times: ‘We recently did a study on teenage sleep. If you just took the average, you would think, “What is all the fuss about?”.

‘However, if you look at the spread of the data you can see 30 per cent are showing really poor sleep.’

For these select few, insomnia may be extremely serious, he added.  

Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder, affecting between 10 and 30 per cent of people. 

It is generally defined as difficulty nodding off, staying asleep or feeling exhausted during the day. 

Previous studies have suggested a lack of sleep increases a person’s heart rate and the time between beats, which was thought to lead to an early death.

However, the current study’s authors argue evidence supporting this is limited, with many studies being small and not adjusting for factors such as smoking or obesity. 

This comes after scientists discovered a ‘sleep switch’ that may be essential to a decent night’s shut eye last month.

A cluster of cells in the region of the brain responsible for sleep become activated as mice are nodding off, according to a study by the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

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5 rules that will not let diabetes

The incidence of diabetes can be prevented in 80% of cases, it was stated by the acting Minister of health Suprun. According to her, 50% of cases of type 2 diabetes people living with him, not knowing that they are sick, for this disease characterized by long duration without showing critical symptoms.

The expert said about what rules are necessary to avoid getting diabetes.

Rule 1: balanced diet. According to the doctor, is particularly at risk with respect to the risk of diabetes is the consumption of high-calorie foods that are high in sugar and different additives. In addition, you should abandon or minimize the quantity of processed food – sausages, products made from white flour and rice.

Not to diabetes, it is important to eat fiber – vegetables and fruits. The expert was advised to eat regularly legumes – they are a regular presence on the table allows you to eat less calories not to gain weight and to have the minimum risk of developing diabetes.

Rule 2: maintain a healthy weight. Suprun stressed that obesity and a larger waist is the evidence of insulin resistance, which is developing prediabetes and then diabetes. Fat affects the maintenance of levels of sugar and cholesterol in the blood, so it is important to stay at one weight and not to gain weight. The greater the share of body fat, the higher the risk of diabetes.

Rule 3: be physically active. You must use any possibility for movements. Weekly body should get about 150 minutes of aerobic activity of moderate character or 75 minutes of intense exercise.

Rule 4: do not smoke. Scientific evidence suggests that smokers are 30-40% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than non smokers. The risk of diabetes in smokers is higher due to the fact that substances from cigarette smoke getting to them in the body, causing inflammation, damage and oxidation of cells.

Rule 5: be examined. If some people in my family are diabetics, it is vital to check the blood sugar level and seek treatment if increasing. The concentrations of sugars from 5.7 to 6.4 is a serious reason for such appeals.

Renamedialog wrote about what foods can lead to diabetes.

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