Cancer-stricken mother, 40, claims the NHS is ‘leaving her to die’

Mother, 40, battling breast cancer is frantically trying to raise £90,000 for a life-extending drug in the US after claiming the NHS is leaving her to die

  • Emma Shaw was diagnosed with secondary triple negative breast cancer
  • Diagnosis is terminal, with doctors saying she has just a year left to live
  • She claims the NHS will not provide potentially life-saving treatments
  • Hopes to be treated with a drug in the US that is not available on the NHS 

A mother has been forced to raise £90,000 for a life-extending drug after claiming the NHS is leaving her to die.

Emma Shaw, 40, from Rothley, Leicestershire, was diagnosed with secondary breast cancer in August – just nine months after being given the ‘all clear’ from the disease.

The tumours have since invaded her liver, with doctors giving her just a year to live. 

Due to her type of cancer – triple negative breast cancer – and her terminal diagnosis, Ms Shaw claims the NHS will only provide palliative chemotherapy rather than life-prolonging treatment.

But the mother-of-one is refusing to give up and is determined to show her eight-year-old son Theo that his ‘mummy tried her best to see him grow up’.

After researching her options online, Ms Shaw is fundraising £90,000 in the hope of receiving a drug in the US that is not routinely available on the NHS.

Emma Shaw has been forced to raise £90,000 for a life-extending drug after claiming the NHS is leaving her to die. She is pictured with her son Theo, eight, before being diagnosed with breast cancer last March. It then spread to her liver and she has been given just a year to live

Pictured after undergoing chemotherapy, Ms Shaw claims the NHS has told her there is nothing they can do to treat her triple negative breast cancer given the fact it is terminal. But she is determined not to give up and wants to show Theo she fought hard to see him grow up 

Pictured with her boyfriend Darren, Ms Shaw accepts her cancer cannot be cured but wants to be around for as long as possible. She is fundraising to get the drug Keytruda in the US, which is not routinely available on the NHS. It stops cancer cells from hiding from the immune system

Other patients battling different types of cancer have previously raised money to access the drug, called pembrolizumab, privately in the UK.

Speaking of her diagnosis, Ms Shaw said: ‘Being told your only option is to die is awful, I am still having chemotherapy with the NHS but no one is sure if this will shrink the cancer or keep me stable.

‘The NHS staff at Leicester Royal Infirmary were amazing the first time I was diagnosed last March but the second time around you feel like you’re just forgotten and there’s no hope for the future.

‘I’m too young to just accept that I have just months left to live so I’m clinging onto hope.’

Ms Shaw is raising money towards paying for the drug Keytruda (pembrolizumab), which prevents cancer cells from hiding from the immune system so it can attack them.    

In June this year, NHS England announced it would be making the drug more routinely available – but only for lung cancer that has spread.  

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‘I’m not blaming the NHS as I know they have procedures to follow but it’s just so scary fighting this alone,’ Ms Shaw said.

‘There’s so many people who are going through the same horrendous ordeal as me, I wake up every day shaking with anxiety.

‘Every second of every day I feel terrified that I’m going to die and that I can’t get help here.’

Ms Shaw is hoping the money she raises will cover her travel costs to the US, as well as her treatment, which she expects she will require for the rest of her life.   

‘America is very much ahead of their game when it comes to treatment but it comes at a very big price,’ she said.

‘I can’t put a cost on my life and time with Theo, so I am determined to make this work so at least I can say I tried.

‘Theo needs to see his mummy trying to fight this awful disease. I also hope my story shows other women there are other options when the NHS can’t help.

‘I don’t want anyone to think I’m being negative about the hospital I have been treated at as they’re amazing, it’s just a shame they don’t offer anymore options when it’s secondary.’

Pictured recently with Theo, Ms Shaw claims she wakes up every day ‘shaking with anxiety’ that she may die at any moment. With her terminal diagnosis, she feels ‘forgotten’ by doctors

Pictured this year with Darren and Theo, Ms Shaw says she is too young to accept life is over


Keytruda (pembrolizumab) is an IV immunotherapy that works with a cancer patient’s immune system to help them fight the disease.

It does this by blocking PD-L1 on the surface of cancer cells. This takes the brakes off the immune system, setting it free to attack cancer cells.  

Keytruda, developed by Merck, has been approved by the FDA to treat the following cancers:

  • Advanced melanoma
  • Advanced non-small lung
  • Head and neck squamos cell
  • Classical Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
  • Bladder and urinary tract 
  • Advanced stomach
  • Advanced cervical 
  • Those with a ‘DNA mismatch repair’, which can include breast 

In the US, Keytruda – injected twice a week – can be used in adults or children with any of the above cancers that cannot be surgically removed or have progressed following treatment. 

In June 2018, NHS England announced the drug will be routinely available on the health service for patients with lung cancers that have spread. It can already be dished out for patients with melanoma or Hodgkin lymphoma.

Studies show the drug can shrink different types of tumours and boost a patient’s response to other treatments.  

But Keytruda can also cause the immune system to attack healthy organs and tissue, which can be life threatening. Complications may include colitis, hepatitis or kidney failure. 


Ms Shaw was told her breast cancer had returned and spread to her liver in August after being diagnosed with pneumonia.

Doctors scanned her lungs and the surrounding areas to assess the infection, only to discover her cancer had come back. 

‘I felt really unwell as soon as I got back from holiday,’ she said. ‘I couldn’t believe it when I was told my cancer was back.

‘I’d had a lumpectomy after my first diagnosis the year before but having a mastectomy now isn’t an option as the cancer is so aggressive.

‘It has been a whirlwind ever since but, despite it all, I have tried to enjoy as much time with my son, Theo, and boyfriend, Darren, as possible.’

After starting her fundraising page last week, Ms Shaw has already raised more than £19,000.

‘I’m so grateful to everyone who has already donated,’ she said.

‘I am hoping I’ll be able to go to America at the start of next year for the immunotherapy treatment.

‘It won’t cure me but it could make my cancer stable.’ 

NHS England and NICE have both been approached for comment.  

She claims she cannot put a cost on her life or her remaining time with Theo, which motivates her to keep fundraising so she can ‘at least say she tried’. They are pictured this year 

Ms Shaw celebrated her ‘last’ chemo session for triple negative breast cancer on September 12 last year. Months later she was given the all clear, only to discover it had returned and invaded her liver last August while being treated for pneumonia. She is pictured with her parents

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Ebola outbreak in the DR Congo is the ‘worst in the country’s history’

Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo is the ‘worst in the country’s history’ as death toll reaches 198 and the killer infection continues to spread

  • At least 319 people have been infected by Ebola in the DR Congo since August
  • Health workers are being attacked, kidnapped and killed by armed groups
  • And 27 children have died from the virus, which experts say is unusual
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The Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the worst to ever rock the country since the horror disease was discovered there in 1976.

Health officials in the African nation say they have never seen such a fierce outbreak. Figures show the current one has infected at least 319 people and killed 198. 

And, unusually, children are being badly affected because they’re catching the virus while in medical clinics for other reasons, experts say.

‘No other epidemic in the world has been as complex as the one we are currently experiencing,’ said Dr Oly Ilunga Kalenga, the DRC’s health minister.

Armed groups have attacked, kidnapped and killed medical staff trying to combat the outbreak, equipment has been destroyed, making it difficult to help victims.

Ebola has now killed at least 198 people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, making it the worst outbreak ever in the central African country, the government says

The outbreak is happening in the Ituri and North Kivu provinces in the north east of the African nation, which borders Uganda and South Sudan.

Having started on August 1, it is the 10th outbreak since the disease, which causes extreme fever, bleeding and diarrhoea, was first discovered 42 years ago.

‘This epidemic remains dangerous and unpredictable, and we must not let our guard down,’ said Dr Kalenga.

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‘We must continue to pursue a very dynamic response that requires permanent readjustments and real ownership at the community level.’

He added: ‘Since their arrival in the region, the response teams have faced threats, physical assaults, repeated destruction of their equipment, and kidnapping.

‘Two of our colleagues in the Rapid Response Medical Unit even lost their lives in an attack.’

Dr Kalenga said teams responding to the outbreak are violently attacked, on average, three to four times a week.

In October, militants killed 11 civilians and a soldier in Beni, a city with a population of around 230,000 people where the outbreak is thought to have started.

Among the 198 people who have died in the outbreak, 163 of them were confirmed to have had Ebola, with 35 of them ‘probable’ cases.

Around 100 people are thought to have survived the incurable virus.

A Congolese health worker administers an experimental Ebola vaccine to a boy who had been in close contact with a confirmed sufferer in Mangina, North Kivu

Congolese soldiers are pictured patrolling an Ebola treatment centre in Beni in the aftermath of an attack that killed more than a dozen civilians 

A doctor is pictured caring for a patient inside an isolated cube at the Alliance for International Medical Action treatment centre in Beni

Despite facing resistance from people who don’t want health workers treating them, the government has managed to vaccinate more than 27,000 people.

Those who are known to have come into contact with others who had the disease have been targeted by the vaccination programme.

The head of UN peacekeeping operations vowed this week to do more with DRC’s government to help improve security in the country’s east.


DRC escaped the brutal Ebola pandemic that began in 2014, which was finally declared over in January 2016 – but it was struck by a smaller outbreak last year.

Four DRC residents died from the virus in 2017. The outbreak lasted just 42 days and international aid teams were praised for their prompt responses.

The new outbreak is the DRC’s tenth since the discovery of Ebola in the country in 1976, named after the river. The outbreak earlier this summer was its ninth.

Health experts credit an awareness of the disease among the population and local medical staff’s experience treating for past successes containing its spread.

DRC’s vast, remote geography also gives it an advantage, as outbreaks are often localised and relatively easy to isolate.

The majority of the Ebola cases have been in the city of Beni – at least 120 confirmed cases have occurred there.

And at least 30 of these – 27 of them fatal – have hit children under the age of 10, officials revealed last month, meaning children are dying at an unprecedented rate.

Jessica Illunga, a spokesperson for the health ministry in DRC said in October: ‘There is an abnormally high number of children who have contracted and died of Ebola in Beni.

‘Normally, in every Ebola epidemic, children are not as affected.’

Dr Peter Salama, emergency response chief at the World Health Organization (WHO), last month warned the current Ebola outbreak would only get worse.

The combination of rebel violence and pre-election unrest is creating a ‘perfect storm’ for an even worse epidemic, he said.

Armed opposition attacks in North Kivu province have risen in recent weeks.

Refugee workers were even forced to evacuate Beni due to a deadly raid that left more than a dozen locals dead.

Fears and misconceptions about the virus are also being exploited by politicians ahead of the DRC’s December election, which is causing the public to lose faith in health workers, according to Dr Salama.

Last month, Ebola was found to be responsible for the death of a woman in Butembo, which has a population of around 1.4 million.

In response, Dr Salama said ‘no-one should be sleeping well tonight around the world’.


Ebola, a haemorrhagic fever, killed at least 11,000 across the world after it decimated West Africa and spread rapidly over the space of two years.

That pandemic was officially declared over back in January 2016, when Liberia was announced to be Ebola-free by the WHO.

The country, rocked by back-to-back civil wars that ended in 2003, was hit the hardest by the fever, with 40 per cent of the deaths having occurred there.

Sierra Leone reported the highest number of Ebola cases, with nearly of all those infected having been residents of the nation.


An analysis, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found the outbreak began in Guinea – which neighbours Liberia and Sierra Leone.

A team of international researchers were able to trace the pandemic back to a two-year-old boy in Meliandou – about 400 miles (650km) from the capital, Conakry.

Emile Ouamouno, known more commonly as Patient Zero, may have contracted the deadly virus by playing with bats in a hollow tree, a study suggested.


Figures show nearly 29,000 people were infected from Ebola – meaning the virus killed around 40 per cent of those it struck.

Cases and deaths were also reported in Nigeria, Mali and the US – but on a much smaller scale, with 15 fatalities between the three nations.

Health officials in Guinea reported a mysterious bug in the south-eastern regions of the country before the WHO confirmed it was Ebola. 

Ebola was first identified by scientists in 1976, but the most recent outbreak dwarfed all other ones recorded in history, figures show.


Scientists believe Ebola is most often passed to humans by fruit bats, but antelope, porcupines, gorillas and chimpanzees could also be to blame.

It can be transmitted between humans through blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of people – and surfaces – that have been infected.


The WHO warns that there is ‘no proven treatment’ for Ebola – but dozens of drugs and jabs are being tested in case of a similarly devastating outbreak.

Hope exists though, after an experimental vaccine, called rVSV-ZEBOV, protected nearly 6,000 people. The results were published in The Lancet journal. 

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Your Birth Control Could Have A Huge Impact On Your Acne

Just in case you’re not painfully aware, acne can be a PIA at any age. The cause? Your constantly fluctuating hormones, of course.

“There are definite links between acne and hormones during all phases of a woman’s life, from the teen years to pregnancy and even perimenopause,” says Christine Masterson, M.D., chief of the women and children’s service line at Summit Medical Group in New Jersey.

Not fair—but what are you supposed to do when you’ve tried all the OTC creams, washes, and spot treatments for acne and none of them are working? Well, birth control might be a legit option.

So, for real…can birth control help clear up my acne?

Yep. According to Masterson, several studies show links between certain kinds of birth control and a decrease in acne—so much so that some birth control pills have actually gone to the FDA to petition to be approved for use as an acne treatment, says Masterson. (Ortho Tri-Cyclen, YAZ, BEYAZ, and Estrostep FE all already have approval.)

One of those studies, according to Masterson, is a 2014 review in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatologists. According to researchers who looked at 32 randomized controlled studies (a.k.a., the most trustworthy kind), oral contraceptives were better at clearing acne over the course of six months than antibiotics used for acne, which were only helpful for three months.

The common denominator here? Those hormones again. According to Masterson, normal hormonal changes in the body that happen throughout your cycle may lead to a rise in the more male-centered hormones called androgens. Those hormones cause more oil to form under the skin—and when that oil gets trapped, bacteria grows, and pimples form.

When you take birth control though, those hormones levels are better regulated (you don’t have a dramatic rise in androgens), which means there’s a reduced chance of breakouts too.

In fact, birth control is such a commonly-used treatment for acne that ob-gyns often prescribe birth control pills at the request of some dermatologists, says Masterson.

So…are some birth control options more effective than others?

Yes to that, too. To really reap the acne-fighting benefits, you need to be on a combination form of birth control (one with both estrogen and progesterone)—that means intrauterine devices (IUDs) and progesterone-only pills (a.k.a. mini pills) won’t work. It’s the estrogen, specifically, in birth control that does the work of leveling out those oil-producing androgens.

Masterson says the Pill is usually prescribed first for acne, but it’s not your only option: Implants, patches and vaginal rings all have both estrogen and progesterone and might be just as effective as the pill.

Masterson notes that it’s important to inform your doctor of your full medical history before getting on birth control for any reason; if you have a history of blood clots or certain kinds of migraines, you likely won’t be a candidate for hormonal birth control at all.

Another thing: Really bad acne flares can be a symptom of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a hormonal disorder which can cause excessive hair growth, irregular periods, and fertility issues, says Masterson—so birth control might not be enough in those situations (even more reason to be totally honest with your doc about symptoms).

Is there anything else I need to know about birth control and acne?

A few things. One, don’t expect quick results as soon as you start taking birth control—your skin might even get worse at first. “Some people see their skin worsen when they initially start taking [it], but often the hormones level out after about six months and the condition of the skin improves,” says Masterson.

Also, if you stop birth control after going on it to stop your acne, there’s always a chance the acne could return—but every situation is different, and it depends on what was causing your acne to begin with.

“If you start taking birth control during your teen years, by the time you come off it [later in life], your hormones might be in a more regular pattern,” Masterson explains. The same goes for acne that was caused by pregnancy, breastfeeding, perimenopause, or some other temporary phase of life. Because a woman’s hormones are always changing, so is the likelihood of her developing acne.

If your breakouts do return after stopping birth control—or if you switch to a different kind like an IUD—they’ll likely show up in the first three to six months after the change.

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Cancer May Soon Replace Heart Disease as Leading Killer of Affluent Americans

MONDAY, Nov. 12, 2018 — Cancer is expected to overtake heart disease as the leading cause of death for well-off Americans by 2020.

The expected shift owes to advances in technology and drugs that are making big headway against heart disease, according to a new report.

But lack of access to quality care is likely to keep heart disease the leading killer of poorer folks in the United States, the researchers said. The change may also happen more slowly in poorer counties where risks for heart disease and death rates are higher.

“Recent data over the last two decades suggests that the U.S is in the midst of a new epidemiological transition within chronic disease, as the leading cause of death moves from heart disease to cancer,” said lead researcher Dr. Latha Palaniappan. She is a professor of medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine in Stanford, Calif.

Better prevention and treatment throughout the 20th century caused deaths from chronic disease to overtake those from infections, the study authors noted.

“Significant advances in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment have enabled heart disease mortality rates to decrease for all populations in recent decades, but those in poorer areas may not transition as quickly,” Palaniappan said.

For the study, the researchers looked at U.S. death records from 2003 to 2015.

Overall, death rates dropped about 1 percent per year. Deaths from heart disease fell nearly 3 percent per year, while cancer deaths decreased by about 1.5 percent per year, the findings showed.

Although deaths from heart disease during the study period fell 28 percent, the drop was more significant in high-income counties than in poorer ones — 30 percent versus 22 percent, the investigators found.

This difference suggests the change from heart disease to cancer as a leading cause of death will take longer in poorer areas.

The transition is complex, and large overlaps exist in risk factors for these chronic diseases, the study authors said. In addition, socioeconomic, geographic, demographic and political factors could influence the speed of the transition, they added.

The report was published Nov. 12 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

In 2016, in the United States, heart disease claimed more than 635,000 lives and cancer took nearly 600,000, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Accidents, the third-leading cause of death, claimed a little more than 160,000 lives.

A researcher in Switzerland who co-authored an editorial that accompanied the study attributes the change to people living longer.

“The shift … is mainly due to population aging and larger declines in age-specific mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases among the elderly, especially among those socioeconomically better off,” said Silvia Stringhini. She’s a research associate at the Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine at Lausanne University Hospital.

Stringhini added that the cost of new cancer treatments and genetic testing may contribute to “inequalities” in cancer deaths, as rich patients are more likely to get advanced care than poor patients.

More information

For more about causes of deaths in the United States, visit the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Posted: November 2018

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Doctors told how to lower blood pressure without medication

High blood pressure is dangerous because it can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease and cause strokes. As you know, to lower blood pressure help medication. Also to improve the condition of patients, specialists develop special diet and advised to choose the right physical exercises.

But as it turned out, there is another simple way to avoid health problems. An international team of researchers found that lower blood pressure helps exposure to blue light.

The experiment involved 14 healthy men. Their entire body for 30 minutes once a day, subjected to exposure to blue monochromatic light at the wavelength of 450 nanometers. The next day was carried out a control experiment: participants were exposed also blue, but not monochromatic light, for 30 minutes.

Experts explain that for the health of blue light, unlike ultraviolet radiation, not dangerous. The same light present in the day of sunlight, is constantly entering the human body.

During light therapy, as well as two hours before and after the session, physicians recorded the number of indicators of volunteers – blood pressure, pulse, arterial stiffness, the degree of expansion of blood vessels, the level of concentration in plasma nitric oxide.

Then followed the analysis of indicators of the health of patients. It turned out that exposure to blue light reduced systolic blood pressure (also known as the “top” pressure) is almost eight millimeters of mercury. In addition, the participants increased heart rate. In the control test, such effect was not observed.

According to doctors, the General condition of patients was very similar to the condition observed in clinical trials when a person takes the drug to reduce the pressure.

However, it was discovered other positive effects. In particular, exposure to blue light reduced the so-called cardiovascular risk markers, including arterial stiffness. Moreover, the participants improved function of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels. Also in plasma of volunteers increased the content of nitric oxide.

Scientists believe that exposure to blue light evoked release of nitric oxide in the bloodstream. When this decreased pressure and increased velocity of blood circulation.

Co-author Professor Christian Heiss (Christian Heiss) from the University of Surrey is confident that the blue light can become the basis of therapies that will help many patients to improve health. This treatment will reduce the dosage of drugs, and in some cases, perhaps, even abandon them (it all depends on how much you want to reduce the pressure).

“Wearable blue light sources can provide a continuous effect is real and practical. This would be especially useful for those whose blood pressure is difficult to control with medications, for example, for elderly people,” — said the Professor, his.

However, the feasibility, safety and long-term effectiveness of new treatment methods professionals remains to be proven in studies with a larger sample of participants, and not only healthy.

The scientific article with a more detailed description of this work published in European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.

Recently the doctors have set a new gold standard safe blood pressure readings.

We also add that this is not the first study of the impact of blue light on the human body. Previously, the authors of the project “Conduct.Science” ( reported that such therapy helps to lower stress levels. But the blue light that shines from the screens of gadgets, computers and televisions, destroys the retina of the eye.

The factor, 4 times increase risk of cancer

Experts from tel Aviv University found that obesity in adolescence is 4 times increases the risk of malignant tumors of the pancreas.

Researchers refer to the data about two million people, who in the years 1967-2002 passed the compulsory medical examination. At that time, the age of the volunteers ranged from 16 to 19 years.

Scientists came to the conclusion that men with excess body mass in adolescence suffered from pancreatic cancer in adulthood 3.67 times more frequently (and women 4.07 times) than their peers who had not previously had serious problems with excess weight.

Moreover, it was noted that even the weight on the upper end of normal increased the risk of developing cancer by about half, writes “the”.

Goiter in women – symptoms and treatments

The contents

Dysbiosis – what is it?

Factors of development of dysbacteriosis


Diagnosis of dysbiosis

How to restore the body when dysbacteriosis?

With the problems of violations of the microflora of the face regardless of age and gender. However, it should be noted that dysbacteriosis in infants, the next highest risk group are women. This is due to the relationship of any violations in the digestive tract with the possibility of the development of vaginal dysbiosis. Often these issues provoke the appearance of each other. Therefore, when identifying one, it is necessary to conduct a preventive therapy against the other. Magicforum find out what are the ways of treatment of goiter, and how to recognize a goiter.

Dysbiosis – what is it?

When you see the light girl her vagina is sterile, for several days it is colonized by bacteria, whose existence oxygen is not required, it is staphylococci, anaerobes and streptococci. In puberty, hormonal changes occur in the composition of the flora. In healthy women can “live” for about 40 species of bacteria. The bulk of lacto-and bifidobacteria. They are all in the safe equilibrium relative to each other and to the organism as a whole, as they do not allow it to develop other bacteria and control its own strength.

Themselves useful to the body women are lactobacilli, which are able to suppress the growth of harmful microbes, producing hydrogen peroxide. The protective level higher than the potential of most antibiotics. Value of normal microflora, according to most experts, is so great that it is called microecological system of the body that is responsible for the reproductive function of women.

Under the influence of various conditions may occur violation of this balance, dysbiosis (dysbiosis). The essence of which lies in the fact that the colonies of some microorganisms grow and suppress all others.

Factors of development of dysbacteriosis

•a stressful situation;


•treatment with antibiotics;

•hormonal changes – pregnancy or oral contraceptives;

•infectious diseases;

•problems with the gastrointestinal tract;

•improper use of hygiene products during menstruation.


The appearance of irritation and itching in the genital organs, the presence of large atypical discharge with a characteristic odor, dryness and discomfort during intercourse. These manifestations may have varying degrees of intensity, from strong to subtle. Dysbiosis is chronic with periods of exacerbations and remissions.

Dysbacteriosis is manifested in the feeling of heaviness, bloating, disturbance of bowel movements, loss of appetite, the development of beriberi, the possibility of occurrence of gastritis or ulcers.

Diagnosis of dysbiosis

For accurate diagnosis of the relevant specialist conducting the examination, appoint microbiological analysis of smears and bacteriological culture to determine the composition of the microflora.

Methods of treatment of a dysbacteriosis

Competent treatment of dysbiosis should be carried out simultaneously in several directions:

•suppression of bacteria that suppress the growth of other organisms;

•restoration of normal microflora;

•restoration of immunity of the whole body of women in General.

The first step is to eliminate violations of the microflora. In that case, if dysbiosis occurs due to sexually transmitted infection, the primary goal of treatment is elimination of the causative agent. Therapy involves the compulsory acceptance of antibacterial drugs. If infectionsare not identified, a course of antibiotics is about 3 days, never performed. A noticeable effect of local treatments that combine the main goal of treatment is suppression of pathogenic microorganisms, the population of the useful life and immunocorrection. The use of antiseptics for the local procedures is significantly more effective than the use of antibiotics. This is due to a broad spectrum of action, and resistance antiseptics.

How to restore the body when dysbacteriosis?

The main part of treatment is the restoration of normal microflora, which is the arrival of the woman’s body with beneficial bacteria. For this purpose, widely used various preparations containing live bacteria – probiotics General and local type of action.

Immune restoration is an important element of the course of therapy in the treatment of dysbiosis. A normally functioning immune system is able to control the microflora, not allowing them to multiply and grow pathogenic organisms. To strengthen the immune abilities apply immunomodulators local destination.

On average, the treatment takes about 3 weeks, then conducted a visual inspection and sampling of material for analysis. Next, you need to periodically engage in the prevention of dysbiosis, you need to visit the doctor at least 3 times throughout the year. This gives you the opportunity to assess the state of the microflora and to trace all changes, detection of which carry out preventive courses of therapy.

To the prevention of dysbiosis include the following: – rational use of antibiotics, timely treatment of diseases of the digestive system, balanced diet.

Preventive doses is useful for the female organism bacteria contained in the products enriched with live cultures of bacteria. Their number is enough to restore microflora with a slight pathology, with no risk of overdose or side effects in the admissions process. Such products are marked “organic” on the package, usually it is milk products. 100-250 grams of this drink a day is enough for prevention of dysbiosis, it is necessary to pay attention to the terms and conditions of product storage is not recommended to use product with a shelf life of more than 7 days.

Previously, doctors have called the most useless ways to treat a cold that did not work.

Decrease in specific gene ‘silencing’ molecules linked with pediatric brain tumors

Experimenting with lab-grown brain cancer cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers have added to evidence that a shortage of specific tiny molecules that silence certain genes is linked to the development and growth of pediatric brain tumors known as low-grade gliomas.

A report of the findings was published this fall 2018 in Scientific Reports, and supports the idea of increasing levels of microRNAs as a potential means of treating these tumors.

An estimated 1,600 cases of pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) are diagnosed annually in the United States, and the vast majority of these slow-growing tumors are treatable and curable mainly by surgical removal, although in some cases surgery has the potential to damage critical nearby brain tissue, depending on tumor location. Unlike high-grade glioblastomas such as the one that took the life of Arizona Senator John McCain, PLGGs mostly affect school-age children and young adults.

“It has long been known that microRNAs play a role in controlling various tumor properties such as growth,” says Fausto Rodriguez, M.D., associate professor of pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the study’s senior author.

“Our findings identified a subset of microRNAs that, in sufficient quantity, seem to decrease the growth and invasion of cancerous cells in pediatric low-grade gliomas.”

MicroRNAs are tiny molecules that, in ways similar to how an orchestra conductor controls the flow of each instrument group, command the expression of entire gene networks that make proteins by essentially silencing them, and are responsible for regulating biological processes such as nutrient intake, cell growth and cell death. Altered levels of specific microRNAs can disrupt entire biological pathways just as a misguided section of an orchestra can unsettle an entire score.

“One microRNA can target multiple genes and have a profound effect on cell processes, and the alterations are dynamic,” notes Rodriguez, who says PLGGs are good candidates for analyzing microRNA types and levels because genetically PLGGs are stable compared with other tumors. That makes it relatively easier, he says, to identify any relevant genetic abnormalities and potential targets for therapy.

For the new study, the researchers first analyzed previously gathered microRNA subtype data in two studies. They examined tumors from 125 patients with low-grade gliomas for levels of a specific microRNA, known as miR-125b, using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), a technique that is applicable to routinely processed tissue in pathology and allows for identification of specific microRNAs in the cells of interest. Levels of this microRNA were lower in 43 pilocytic astrocytomas (the most common subtype of PLGG) when compared with 24 diffuse astrocytomas and normal brain tissues.

Rodriguez and the research team next looked at eight cancerous cell lines derived from brain (glial) tumors in children for levels of microRNA 125b-p using a method that can rapidly make thousands to millions of copies of a genetic sequence for easier analysis of how much of a gene is expressed. Although levels of microRNA 125b-p varied across the lab-grown cell lines, they were significantly and uniformly lower in cancerous cell lines than noncancerous cell lines, Rodriguez reports.

In further experiments designed to identify the role of these microRNAs in cell growth, the investigators increased levels of miR-125b in cancerous cell lines by introducing a DNA segment in the tumor cells using specific viruses, and saw a decrease in cell division and growth. To check whether cell death contributed to this decrease in cell growth, Rodriguez stained cells containing high levels of microRNA 125b and noted cell death in all cell lines, suggesting that increasing levels of microRNA 125b can stop the growth of PLGG.

“These findings are an example of where advances in precision medicine might take us, and show how, someday, increasing levels of specific genes and microRNAs might be a targeted treatment for PLGGs,” says Rodriguez.

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Global warming provokes mental disorders — experts

The increase in temperature worldwide, which will happen as a result of global warming, affects the psychological health of people.

To such conclusion scientists from the American University in Arizona that from 2000 to 2012, collecting data, analyzing the status of the two million inhabitants of the United States. It was found that increasing the temperature even one degree in the last five years has provoked the emergence of new mental disorders, according to Planet Today.

As previously reported Federal news Agency, the Ministry of natural resources recorded an increase in average annual air temperature in the Arctic zone of the country by 3.23 degrees. This is a record warming in the XXI century, which may result in serious consequences.

Climate scientists have long feared that global warming could trigger melting of polar ice that will raise the level of the oceans, loss of fresh water, changing ocean currents and, consequently, to a global reorganization of the climate on the planet. It is not excluded that all these processes are accompanied by natural disasters of catastrophic magnitude.

Exosomes ‘swarm’ to protect against bacteria inhaled through the nose

Bacteria are present in just about every breath of air we take in. How the airway protects itself from infection from these bacteria has largely remained a mystery—until now. When bacteria are inhaled, exosomes, or tiny fluid-filled sacs, are immediately secreted from cells which directly attack the bacteria and also shuttle protective antimicrobial proteins from the front of the nose to the back along the airway, protecting other cells against the bacteria before it gets too far into the body.

A research team from Massachusetts Eye and Ear describes this newly discovered mechanism in a report published online today in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (JACI). The findings shed new light on our immune systems—and also pave the way for drug delivery techniques to be developed that harness this natural transportation process from one group of cells to another.

“Similar to kicking a hornets nest, the nose releases billions of exosomes into the mucus at the first sign bacteria, killing the bacteria and arming cells throughout the airway with a natural, potent defense” said senior author Benjamin Bleier, MD, a sinus surgeon at Massachusetts Eye and Ear and associate professor of otolaryngology at Harvard Medical School. “It’s almost like this swarm of exosomes vaccinates cells further down the airway against a microbe before they even have a chance to see it.”

The JACI study was motivated by a perplexing previous finding from Dr. Bleier’s lab a few years ago. In studies of sinus inflammation, researchers found that proteins in the cells of the nasal cavity were also present in patients’ nasal mucus. The team wanted to know why and how these proteins were moving from the cells into the nasal mucus, hypothesizing that exosomes had something to do with that process.

The new findings described in the JACI study shed light on this process. When cells at the front of the nose detect a bacterial molecule, they trigger a receptor called TLR4, which stimulates exosome release. When that happens, an innate immune response occurs within 5 minutes. First, it doubles the number of exosomes that are released into the nose. Second, within those exosomes, a protective enzyme, nitric oxide synthase, also doubles in amount. As a well-known antimicrobial molecule, nitric oxide potently arms each exosome to defend against bacteria.

The exosome “swarm” process gets an assist from another natural mechanism of the nose—mucocilliary clearance. Mucocilliary clearance sweeps the activated exosomes over to the back of the nose, along with information from cells that have already been alerted to the presence of bacteria. This process prepares the cells in the back of the nose to immediately fight off the bacteria, arming them with defensive molecules and proteins.

In their experiments described in the JACI report, Dr. Bleier’s team sampled patients’ mucus and grew up their own cells in culture. They then simulated an exposure to bacteria and measured both the number and composition of the released exosomes. They found a doubling of both the number of exosomes and of antibacterial molecules after stimulation. The team then confirmed this finding in live patients and further showed that these stimulated exosomes were as effective as antibiotics at killing the bacteria. Finally, the team showed that the exosomes were rapidly taken up by other epithelial cells, where they were able to “donate” their antimicrobial molecules.

Along with this new understanding of the innate immune system, the authors on the JACI paper suggest that their findings may have implications for new methods of delivering drugs through the airway to be developed. More specifically, as natural transporters, exosomes could be used to transfer inhaled packets of therapeutics to cells along the upper airway—and possibly even into the lower airways and lungs.

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