Why modest goals are so appealing: Achieving a small incremental goal is perceived as easier — and more satisfying — than maintaining the status quo

Thanks to a quirk in the way our brain evaluates goals, people feel it’s easier to achieve a small incremental goal than to maintain the status quo, when both goals are assessed in isolation. This is especially true if the context is seen as unfavourable.

This finding, which contrasts with the popular belief that no change is easier than any change, is the fruit of research led by marketing professors from INSEAD, IE Business School and Pamplin College of Business.

“When evaluating goal difficulty, our brain first considers the gap between the starting point and the desired state. Usually, the bigger the gap, the more difficult the goal. However, if there is no gap to speak of, as in the case of a status quo goal, the brain starts scanning the context, anticipating potential reasons for failure,” said study co-author Amitava Chattopadhyay, Professor of Marketing and the GlaxoSmithKline Chaired Professor of Corporate Innovation at INSEAD.

For example, if your goal is to keep the same weight this year, you may start considering the odds of you regularly eating out due to a high workload, the number of your upcoming business trips, the fact that a new donut shop has opened in your neighbourhood, etc.

“Our assessment of context is peculiar in the sense that it is greatly impacted by a negativity bias,” says Antonios Stamatogiannakis, Assistant Professor of Marketing at IE Business School. Our brain has evolved over the millennia to be more sensitive to bad news than good news. Most of us instinctively give more weight to potential reasons for failure than reasons for success.

When a status quo goal is directly compared to one that involves a modest improvement, objectivity prevails: The absence of a gap makes the status quo goal seems easier, as logic would dictate. Nevertheless, in such a direct comparison scenario, study participants still preferred to pursue a small incremental goal over a “maintenance” goal, as they expected this achievement to be more satisfying.

These results are described in “Attainment versus Maintenance Goals: Perceived Difficulty and Impact on Goal Choice,” a paper co-authored by Chattopadhyay, Stamatogiannakis and Dipankar Chakravarti, Professor of Marketing at Pamplin College of Business. Their paper was published in the November 2018 issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

A two-step process

Across six studies, Chattopadhyay and his study co-authors showed that the brain assesses goal difficulty using a two-step process. First comes the size of the gap to be bridged. But if that gap is zero, the brain defaults to the second step, which is the context in which the goal is to be achieved. Context assessment usually triggers negativity bias, which is why, when judged in isolation, a maintenance goal is deemed more difficult than one involving a small increment.

In the first studies, participants were split into groups that each evaluated the difficulty of a particular goal type. While the difficulty of the goal was generally correlated to the gap size, goals that involved a modest increment were rated as easier than those involving the status quo (rated separately). When asked to explain their ratings, participants evaluating status quo goals were quick to mention all the obstacles that could crop up. In later studies, participants were more interested in pursuing a modest-attainment goal than to maintain the status quo, even when real money was in play.


Managers setting goals such as sales quotas should be aware that status quo goals are less attractive than ones involving a slight increment. This may be especially true if the economy is in a downturn, as a status quo goal will precisely draw the staff’s attention to the negative context and have a demoralising effect.

“Marketing-wise, promotions requiring consumers to achieve modest attainment goals, such as a small increase in a customer’s account balance in the case of a bank, may prove more popular than promotions involving no such goal,” says Chattopadhyay.

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Trainer Erin Oprea on the 'Huge Honor' of Leading the First All-Female Marine Corps Platoon

Erin Oprea is best known these days as the trainer behind some of the fittest bodies in country music. But before she was spending her days taking Carrie Underwood, Kelsea Ballerini and more through high intensity workouts, she was a trailblazer in the United States Marine Corps, making her mark as the leader of the first all-female platoon.

The PEOPLE Health Squad trainer joined the Marines in 1997, after the movie G.I. Jane inspired her to serve. Leaving her two young sons was already tough, but the challenge only grew when her dad died the day before she was supposed to leave for her first tour in Iraq in 2003.

“At my going away party the day before I was to ship out, my father had a massive heart attack and died right after we were all playing volleyball,” she tells PEOPLE. “He had never had any heart trouble before — just walked into the kitchen and died. His death changed my life in ways I hadn’t imagined.”

Oprea was given another week to be with her family, but then she had to ship out.

“There was so much to come to grips with including leaving my kids and losing my dad that what got me through it was focusing on the job in front of me. I believe that’s the only thing that kept me sane.”

And while she was there, Oprea’s strength stood out. After the first invasion of Fallujah in 2003, the Marines created the first all-female platoon attached to the infantry in a war zone, and asked her to lead. Oprea says being the first was an important, but difficult position to be in.

“Women Marines had a tough time of it, really. We were constantly being told what we weren’t capable of doing and what we weren’t allowed to do,” she says. “Being part of the first all-female platoon in the Marines was a huge honor, then to be in charge of it added a layer of responsibility to that honor. We had to do our jobs, sure, but more than that, we had to do them better. We had to be aware of our actions all the time. If one of us slipped up, it reflected badly on all of us, much more than it did for the men. We were a small group of women, but ALL women Marines were being judged by how we performed. It was a massive responsibility and one that I reminded my Marines of every single day.”

The position weighed on Oprea, then just in her mid-twenties.

“Of course I worried that our actions would have negative consequences for other female Marines and even women in other branches of service,” she says. “But, my biggest worry was for the safety of my unit. I was kind of a kid myself and I had all these women’s lives in my hands. I was worried that I would make a mistake that would cost them their lives.”

And just after Oprea was shipped home, her unit was hit. “It haunts me even now,” she says.

Oprea went to counseling for PTSD after her first deployment, and learned about ways to manage her condition and stress. One of those methods was exercise, and it became a huge part of her life, along with a way to remember her dad.

“I have always believed that exercise is a great way to deal with stress; so, yes, I worked out a lot myself when I first came back, but I had always been really active growing up,” she says. “I played soccer and was always running around everywhere. I became a certified personal trainer when I was just 18 because I really love fitness and my dad did, too.”

And her dad’s death taught Oprea more about what it means to be healthy.

RELATED VIDEO: Erin Oprea Shares Her Tips for Great Legs

“He appeared to be perfectly healthy and fit, but he wasn’t,” she says. “After his death, I became more interested in nutrition and in the power of the foods that we put into our bodies. Just because we look fit doesn’t mean we are. So, I started reading up on nutrition and learning about how we hurt our bodies with bad food choices.”

From there, she developed the nutrition and workout plans that she uses with the top country stars and her clients. But Oprea emphasizes that there’s no secret to their bodies — just hard work.

“Hit songs don’t get you great legs. Conscious effort does,” she says. “These women — and the men I work with — hold themselves accountable. They live balanced lives, sure! You gotta have a glass of wine and a doughnut every now and then, but they make sure those things are treats, not habits. And they work hard to get those pretty muscles.”

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AHA: Defibrillators Can Help Kids Survive Cardiac Arrest, Too

FRIDAY, Nov. 9, 2018 (American Heart Association) — Sudden cardiac arrest — when the heart stops beating — is one of the leading causes of death in the U.S. To help save lives, automated external defibrillators, which shock the heart back into a regular beat, have been placed in many public places.

Now, these portable AED devices may improve the chance of survival among children and teens, according to a new study presented Sunday at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions meeting in Chicago.

The researchers analyzed statistics in a national database on 971 cardiac arrests in children ages 18 and under that occurred outside a hospital between January 2013 and December 2017. An AED was used 10.3 percent of the time, but rates varied across age groups. For infants, defibrillators were used to help 2.3 percent. But AED use became more common as children got older: 8.3 percent among kids ages 2 to 5; 12.4 percent among those 6 to 11; and 18.2 percent among 12- to 18-year-olds.

Older kids may be more likely to have a bystander use a defibrillator because they may be more likely to go into cardiac arrest in a place, such as a school, that has an AED, said the study’s lead researcher Dr. Heather Griffis, director of the Healthcare Analytics Unit at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

Bystanders might also be afraid to use a defibrillator on infants and preschool-age children out of fear of injuring them, said the study’s senior researcher Dr. Joe Rossano, a pediatric cardiologist at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

“If a child has an arrest, it’s a scary thing,” Rossano said. “People don’t want to do something wrong. But anything you do is going to be helpful.”

Children treated with an AED by a bystander had a survival rate of 29.1 percent, compared to 23.7 percent for children who were not. The rates varied by age and race, with children who were 12 to 18 years old or white having better outcomes than younger children or those who were black or Hispanic. Griffis said similar racial differences also are seen in adults.

“It’s unfortunate that we’re still seeing these disparities across race, ethnicity and neighborhoods,” Griffis said. “But this is a great opportunity for education and to increase availability” of AEDs in neighborhoods that don’t yet have them.

More than 350,000 Americans — including about 7,000 children — experience cardiac arrests outside of the hospital each year. AEDs come with step-by-step instructions that make it possible for people without specialized training to use them.

Dr. Alson Inaba directs pediatric advanced life support classes at Queen’s Medical Center in Honolulu and said the study added important new information on the use of AEDs in children.

Inaba, who was not involved in the research, said that bystanders should start CPR on a cardiac arrest victim of any age after calling 911.

“The bottom line is that starting CPR immediately is your first priority,” Inaba said. “Don’t be afraid.”

Then, send someone to get a defibrillator. “When you combine CPR with an AED, the survival rates increase,” he said.

Indeed, a separate study published earlier this year in the AHA journal Circulation found that survival rates doubled when bystanders used a defibrillator to help an adult who had experienced cardiac arrest before emergency responders arrived.

“Defibrillators work,” Rossano said. “It’s something anybody can do, and the more that are available, the more opportunities there are to save lives.”

Posted: November 2018

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Cocaine Cut With Anti-Worming Drug May Cause Brain Damage

THURSDAY, Nov. 8, 2018 — Cocaine is often cut with the anti-worming drug levamisole — and the combination is linked to brain damage, Swiss researchers report.

“We can assume from our findings that it is not just cocaine that changes the brain, but that the adulterant levamisole has an additional harmful effect,” said research leader Boris Quednow, from the University of Zurich.

“The sorts of cognitive impairment often exhibited by cocaine users may therefore be exacerbated by levamisole,” Quednow said in a university news release.

Cocaine is the second-most used illegal substance worldwide after marijuana. Local anesthetic agents, painkillers, caffeine and other substances are often added to street cocaine, the researchers said in background notes.

In Europe and the United States, levamisole is a common additive, possibly because it may increase or prolong cocaine’s effects, Quednow and his colleagues suggested.

The researchers analyzed hair samples to determine levels of cocaine and levels of levamisole in study participants. They ended up comparing 26 cocaine users with low levamisole exposure, 49 cocaine users with high levamisole exposure, and 78 people using no drugs.

In tests of mental and thinking skills, regular cocaine users scored worse on attention, working memory, long-term memory, and other mental functions compared to people who didn’t use cocaine. But those whose cocaine was cut with levamisole performed worst of all, according to the study.

Moreover, brain scans linked higher levamisole levels with impaired thinking and a thinned prefrontal cortex. This indicates levamisole has a toxic effect on the brain, the researchers concluded.

Although the study didn’t prove a cause-and-effect relationship, the authors called on public health officials to expand their drug-checking programs.

“Such programs mean users can have their drugs tested for purity and therefore avoid taking cocaine that has very high levels of levamisole,” Quednow said.

The findings were published recently in Translational Psychiatry.

More information

The U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse has more about cocaine.

Posted: November 2018

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Study finds alcohol advertising rules may fail to protect Australian kids

Regulations introduced to restrict the placement of alcohol advertising are unlikely to reduce young people’s exposure to alcohol marketing in Australia, new research led by Curtin University has found.

The research, published in the Drug and Alcohol Review journal, critically reviewed the placement rules added to the industry-run Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC) Scheme in November 2017 and evaluated their ability to effectively regulate the placement of alcohol marketing in Australia.

Co-author Ms Julia Stafford, from the Alcohol Programs Team at the Public Health Advocacy Institute of WA (PHAIWA) based at Curtin University, said the placement rules do not meet the criteria for effective self-regulation and do not appear to have introduced any additional safeguards for young people.

“The placement rules were introduced to put some restrictions on where alcohol companies could market their products. The rules include requiring advertisers meet other industry codes that apply to the placement of alcohol advertising, market their products to audiences that are at least 75 per cent adults, and ensure alcohol advertising is not placed within programs aimed at minors,” Ms Stafford said.

“We found that they are unlikely to reduce young people’s exposure to alcohol marketing as they are very narrow in scope, exclude key forms of promotion, and place minimal restrictions on marketers. All but one of the 24 placement-related determinations published in the first six months of the placement rules were either dismissed or found to be ‘no fault’ breaches.

“The rules allow alcohol advertising to be broadcast during televised sport on weekends and public holidays, and do little to limit outdoor advertising. Alcohol ads placed in shopping centres, at sports stadiums, on public transport vehicles, and at bus stops or train stations outside of a 150m radius of a school are all consistent with the placement rules.”

First author Ms Hannah Pierce, also from the Alcohol Programs Team at PHAIWA, said the review also identified substantial flaws in the regulatory processes of the placement rules.

“The alcohol and advertising industries were heavily involved in the development of the rules, but there was no evidence of consultation with other stakeholders. There are also no penalties for marketers who breach the rules,” Ms Pierce said.

“Our findings support existing evidence that industry-managed systems fail to effectively regulate alcohol marketing and government intervention is needed if young people’s wellbeing is to be a priority.

“It has now been 12 months since the placement rules were introduced and our research shows that a comprehensive, independent review of the ABAC Scheme is needed.”

The research was also co-authored by researchers from the Public Health Advocacy Institute of WA and the School of Psychology at Curtin University and Cancer Council WA.

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Yoga and meditation is growing on Americans: Report

Yoga and meditation have been shown to provide physical and mental health benefits, and it seems that people are catching on to that fact, as a new report shows that more adults and children have been practicing the two over the last five years.

Between 2012 and 2017, the number of adults practicing yoga rose from an estimated 9.5 percent to 14.3 percent, according to the report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Yoga was the most common form of complementary medicine reviewed. However, meditation saw the most drastic rise in use, with 4.1 percent of adults practicing it in 2012 versus 14.2 percent in 2017.

While adults were found to practice yoga and meditation the most, a separate report said that children were also taking part at an increasing rate. From 2012 to 2017, the number of children ages 4 to 17 doing yoga rose from 3.1 percent to 8.4 percent. Similarly, the number of kids who meditated rose from 0.6 percent to 5.4 percent.

“Yoga and meditation are practices which can make you feel better, improve your overall health and are generally safe,” said Dr. Anton Borja, Medical Director of Integrative Oncology at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. People who practice them,

Complementary medicine includes a variety of medical approaches that are not typically part of conventional medicine but are used in addition to it.

Though they can be practiced by anyone, Borja said that for patients diagnosed with a serious illness — who might be more inclined to feel helpless about their health — they can be useful tools to help patients “take back into their own hands some control over their health.”

With regard to meditation, for example, it’s “been shown to help improve anxiety and depression and help to control pain, including chronic lower back pain,” Borja said. “People who practice yoga and meditation have indicated a general feeling of improved health and wellbeing.”

According to the Mayo Clinic, yoga is able to reduce stress, improve fitness and help people manage chronic conditions. Meditation helps people to gain a new perspective on stressful situations, focus on the present and reduce negative emotions.

If you think yoga or meditation would be a good addition to your overall health care, talk to your doctor.

Dr. Anna Jackson is a psychiatry resident at Vanderbilt University Medical Center and a member of the ABC News Medical Unit.

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The simple habit that could help you lose more weight

Struggling to lose those few extra pounds? New research suggests stepping on the scale every day could be the key to losing more weight.

Sarah Lord is one of the many Americans trying to shed a few pounds.

“I’ll weigh myself on Monday morning to start my week and then Saturday to see how I did at the end of the week,” she told CBS News.

New research backs up the idea that this habit can help dieters succeed. The study out of the University of Pittsburgh shows people who weigh themselves daily are more likely to lose weight compared to those who don’t weigh themselves at all or weigh themselves rarely. 

The study of more than 1,000 adults found those who weighed themselves several times a week had more significant weight loss in a year. People who never stepped on a scale, or who did so just once a week, lost no weight. The research was presented in Chicago at the American Heart Association’s Scientific Sessions 2018.

Why would regular weight checks make a difference?

“It would remind you to eat healthy foods, watch your calories, portion sizes, maybe stay away from those tempting sweets in the office because you know you are going to be getting on the scale the next day,” said registered dietitian Martha McKittrick.

However, stepping on the scale everyday may not be for everyone. McKittrick says for certain people, weighing too often could decrease self-esteem and increase anxiety.

“If you find weighing yourself everyday helps you and helps you stay on track, helps you stay focused, then I would recommend you do it,” she told CBS News. “But if you find weighing yourself makes you upset or makes you lose motivation, or makes you obsessed with the scale, then I do not recommend you weigh yourself every day.”

As for Sarah Lord, she says she finds getting on the scale to be a source of motivation.

“If it goes down, great. If it goes up, you just know you need to be a little bit more strict,” she said.

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Mom Breast Pumps While Running an Ironman to Hit Her Goal Time: 'I Just Didn't Want to Stop'

Mom life never stops — even on the way to a personal record.

Air Force Staff Sergeant and mom of two Jaime Sloan was racing in her first Ironman 70.3 since giving birth to her 7-month-old son, when she realized she had to pump her breast milk. Sloan had planned ahead and expected to stop in between the bike ride and the run to sit and pump, until she saw she had a shot at a personal best.

“I knew that I would PR (hit a personal record) because I had a really amazing bike ride and a pretty decent swim,” she tells PEOPLE. “I had brought my hand pump and I just decided to go for it. I was making good time and I just didn’t want to stop and lose the time on my race.”

Armed with her hand pump, a CamelBak and a washcloth, the 34-year-old took off for the run and figured out how to pump as discreetly as possible.

“At first it was a struggle because I was trying to get the milk flowing,” she says. “It takes a little bit of work with the hand pump, and my legs were very tired. But once I got it going I was able to run, even though I was going really slowly.”

Still, Sloan managed to clear out the buildup in both of her breasts, pop the bottle in her CamelBak and keep on running the 13.1 miles — with all her equipment.

“Ironman races actually have a policy where you can’t take anything or hand anything to a spectator, so I had to run all the way through with the milk,” she says.

RELATED VIDEO: Jamie Lynn Spears Says She’s ‘On-Demand’ Breastfeeding Baby Ivey, Once Fed Her at a Softball Game

And Sloan made it through the rest of the Ironman 70.3 Arizona and on to a surprising personal record of six hours and 12 minutes, which she credits to her cheering squad.

“It was pretty incredible,” she says. “To be honest I wasn’t even sure that I would do that well. I was even concerned that I wouldn’t even finish. I hurt my shoulder about two weeks before the race, and I took two weeks off from swimming. But I came out strong and I guess I just took the triathlon one section at a time. Knowing that I was able to overcome all that and do so well in the race and get a PR was pretty awesome for me. But I definitely owe it to my family, because I saw them about four times during the run and they just kept energizing me and encouraging me.”

Sloan says it capped off a stressful training cycle as she learned how to manage life with a newborn and her 2-year-old daughter, along with going back to work and a parenting on her own for a period of five weeks when her husband was traveling.

“It was difficult, for sure,” she says. “I lost a lot of sleep. But I would just take the kids to daycare and run in the mornings or ride my bike. I just found a way to work it in.”

And Sloan says she thinks her experience shows that people can do whatever they put their minds to.

“Anything is possible,” she says. “I think it’s so cool that there are other people out there who seen this and who have been encouraged to not only do triathlons, but to continue they’re breastfeeding journey or whatever journey they’re on.”

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Witch hazel: Uses, benefits, and side effects

Witch hazel is a small tree native to the east coast of North America. Many people use it as a decorative outdoor plant.

In this article, learn about the possible benefits of witch hazel, as well as how to use it and whether there are any side effects.

Uses and benefits

Witch hazel is an astringent. People commonly use it topically, meaning they apply it directly to the skin.

Witch hazel may help treat the following conditions:


Witch hazel may help heal hemorrhoids, which are dilated veins in the anus or rectum. Hemorrhoids can cause irritation, bleeding, and discomfort.

While there is not enough evidence to prove it is effective, some people get relief by adding witch hazel to a bath. This may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Similarly to sunburn, bug bites and stings can cause swelling and inflammation. Applying witch hazel to the bite may reduce itching and discomfort.


Witch hazel has anti-inflammatory properties, which may help reduce discomfort from sunburn.

People can use a cloth or cotton ball to apply witch hazel directly to sunburn.

It may be especially soothing if a person mixes witch hazel with aloe vera, which is another plant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Stretch marks

Some people apply witch hazel to pregnancy stretch marks in an effort to lighten them and make them less noticeable. However, there is no research to support this use.


The astringent properties of witch hazel cause the skin to tighten and small blood vessels to constrict, which may help stop bleeding from minor cuts or nosebleeds.

Side effects

Witch hazel is safe for most people to use as an at-home treatment for some common skin issues.

Some people may have an allergic reaction to witch hazel, so it is best to test it first on a small patch of skin and monitor it for 24 hours. If there is no redness, itching, or irritation, it should be safe to apply to a larger area.


Witch hazel can be a great addition to an at-home medicine cabinet and is usually well-tolerated. It is safe for most people to use for certain skin conditions, even if the research has not yet proven its effectiveness scientifically.

However, using home remedies such as witch hazel cannot replace advice from a doctor or other healthcare provider.

If using witch hazel as a remedy does not work or the condition gets worse, it is vital that people consult their doctor for further advice.

Witch hazel is available in some pharmacies, health food stores, and online.

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Watching People Beatbox in an MRI Machine Will Blow Your Mind

When Nimisha Patil presses her tongue against the roof of her mouth and exhales just so, she sends the tip of her tongue rattling like a playing card in a bicycle spoke. This makes a sound that exists in no human language, except perhaps the nonverbal language of beatboxing.

Patil is a beatboxer, a musician who can create convincing drum beats and other percussive sounds using only her vocal tract. She's also a researcher at the Signal Analysis and Interpretation Laboratory (SAIL) at the University of Southern California (USC), where she and her colleagues are working to understand how beatboxers recruit their tongues, lips, jaws, larynxes and nasal passages — body parts normally used for speech — to mimic percussion instruments. [10 Things You Didn't Know About You]

In the ongoing experiments, Patil and four other beatboxers of different ages, genders and skill levels took turns lying down in an MRI machine while demonstrating their repertoires of homemade percussive sounds. While the beatboxers filled the MRI with rhythmic strings of clicks, kicks, rattles and trills, the machine recorded the exact anatomical movements occurring inside their mouths, noses and throats. The result is a literal inside look at the mechanics of beatboxing, captured in high-definition video.

Timothy Greer, a doctoral candidate at USC and a member of the SPAN beatboxing team, said these videos counter previous research that suggested beatboxers can create only those sounds that fit into the phonetic library of known world languages. In fact, it looks more like beatboxers invent a new language all their own, he said.

"Beatboxers are able to mimic percussive sounds that we don't know to exist in any language," Greer told Live Science. "They're learning to use their mouths and vocal tracts in ways that they have never had to use for speech, going totally outside of common articulations and airstreams and creating what we call art. It's incredible."

For example, Greer said, watch a beatboxer perform an "inward click roll," a sound that roughly mimics a rattling synth bass drum. To articulate this sound, the beatboxer needs to curl her tongue back on itself while inhaling just enough air to cause a trilling vibration. According to Greer, the resulting sound comes from an airstream "we don't hear in any known language."

By stringing together percussive articulations like these into cohesive beats, beatboxers essentially organize sounds into longer "words and phrases," Greer said, much like what happens in speech. The difference is that there are no native speakers of beatboxing; it's a nonverbal language that comes entirely from mimicry and experimentation. Luckily, Greer said, that means anyone who wants to should be able to learn it.

"A good comparison might be how we learn to make an elephant noise," Greer said. "We put our lips together and blow out. We don't learn that from the English language — that's not in our canon — but we figure it out through mimicry."

Mastering the young art of beatboxing obviously requires a lot more practice and patience than tooting one's lips like an elephant. Soon, Greer said, the SPAN team will try and make that pursuit a little easier for aspiring beatboxers by marrying their MRI footage with computer algorithms. These will describe the exact, pixel-by-pixel movements of a beatboxer's vocal organs for every sound in his or her repertoire.

Beyond their use as a teaching tool, Greer hopes that these data could also help tease out the similarities and differences between beatboxing and speech and whether beatboxing can reveal anything about how humans learn and interact with language. Stay tuned for more research papers — and sick, sick beats — dropping in a science journal near you.

Greer presented his team's research today (Nov. 7) at the 176th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, held in conjunction with the Canadian Acoustical Association's 2018 Acoustics Week in Victoria, Canada. The findings have not been published in a peer-reviewed journal.

Originally published on Live Science.

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