Infants born to obese mothers risk developing liver disease, obesity

Infant gut microbes altered by their mother’s obesity can cause inflammation and other major changes within the baby, increasing the risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease later in life, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

The study was published Oct. 26 in the journal Nature Communications.

“Alteration of the gut microbiome early in life may precede development of obesity instead of being caused by established obesity,” said the study’s lead author Taylor Soderborg, an MD/Ph.D. candidate in the Integrative Physiology Program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “This is the first study to show a causative role of these microbes in priming development of obesity.”

Childhood obesity is a world-wide epidemic with recent predictions saying that 57 percent of today’s children will be obese by age 35. That parallels the rate of maternal obesity which is nearly 40 percent. Obesity increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which impacts at least 30 percent of obese children. NAFLD can lead to liver failure, requiring a transplant.

In this study, researchers looked at two-week old infants born to normal weight mothers and obese mothers. They took stool samples from infants from both groups and colonized them inside germ-free mice.

They discovered that the gut microbes from babies born to obese mothers caused metabolic and inflammatory changes to the liver and bone marrow cells of the mice. Then, when fed a Western-style high fat diet, these mice were predisposed to more rapid weight gain and development of fattier livers.

“This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that changes in the gut microbiome in infants born to obese mothers directly initiate these disease pathways,” Soderborg said.

For the study’s senior author, Jed Friedman, Ph.D., MS, professor of pediatrics and neonatology at the CU School of Medicine, the findings offer potential hope for understanding how early microbes might go awry in children born to obese mothers.

“About 35 percent of these kids have NAFLD and there is no known therapy for it,” he said. “But if we can alter the microbiome we can change the course of NAFLD.”

Friedman said the study shows that the microbiome can cause the disease rather than simply be associated with it. Newborns of obese mothers, he said, could be screened for potential changes in their gut that put them at risk for NAFLD.

“If we could modify the first two weeks of the infant microbiome, we could reduce the risk of this disease,” said Friedman.

That could be done through giving the infant probiotics or other supplements.

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Harmful if tea with milk?

The effects of tea with milk on the human body repeatedly studied in the research. Against the use of this drink, scientists have been arguments, but to refuse tea with milk they recommend not rushing.

In Germany the experiment was conducted with 16 participants who drank cyclopamine different types of milk. The results showed that consumption of tea with any milk slows digestion. In addition, German doctors spoke about the fact that regular intake with casolaro can be harmful to the kidneys, contributing to the formation of stones.

In clinical centre Charit in Berlin the study was conducted, the entrance of which is in people who drank tea with milk and without it, the measured blood pressure. As a result, the group consumed cycloloma were recorded the worst performance.

“Milk variolinum gospodaresti to lower blood pressure. The mixture casolaro makes the blood vessels less elastic,” stated the researchers.
According to them, people who drink tea with milk in large quantities, threatening headache, weakness, kidney stones, slow metabolism. In addition, this tea is much high-calorie normal – if you drink it with sweets and dessert products to gain weight easily and quickly.

However, scientists do not hurry to call the tea with milk is harmful or dangerous. According to them, experimental data was not enough to do on ethanamide final conclusion as only harmful beverage. Besides cycloloma has health benefits. In particular, his drink is good nutraflora the stomach, helps to recover faster after an illness. Weak cassrole amount of milk is very useful for nursing mothers: drink mommy’s milk does for the baby more satisfying.

Earlier Magicforum wrote about the fact that coffee can save you from liver cancer.

Meditation helps conflict veterans with PTSD, study finds

Transcendental meditation—the practice of effortless thinking—may be as effective at treating PTSD in conflict veterans as traditional therapy, US researchers said Friday, in findings that could help tens of thousands deal with their trauma.

Post traumatic stress disorder, a debilitating condition that can lead to psychosis, bipolar disorder or suicidal and homicidal thoughts, affects an estimated 14 percent of US veterans who serve in Iraq or Afghanistan.

The most common treatment for PTSD is a process known as prolonged exposure psychotherapy, which forces sufferers to re-experience traumatic events by confronting their memories of the conflict.

Researchers from three US universities decided to look into whether more everyday techniques, which help civilians lower their stress levels and increase focus and productivity, would work on traumatised veterans.

They trialed 203 former servicemen and women with PTSD, most of whom were receiving medication for their symptoms, and randomly assigned them courses of transcendental meditation, prolonged exposure therapy or a specialised PTSD health education class.

They found that 60 percent of veterans who did 20 minutes of quiet meditation every day showed significant improvement in their symptoms, and more completed the study than those given exposure therapy.

“Over the past 50 years, PTSD has expanded to become a significant public health problem,” Sanford Nidich, of the Maharishi University of Management Research Institute, told AFP.

“Due to the increasing need to address the PTSD public health care problem in the US, UK and worldwide, there is a compelling need to implement governmental policy to include alternative therapies such as transcendental meditation as an option for treating veterans with PTSD.”

Transcendental meditation involves effortlessly thinking of an idea or mantra to produce a settled, calmer state of mind—scientists call it “restful alertness”.

Unlike exposure therapy, meditation can be practised at home, takes up relatively little time, and researchers say it would be significantly cheaper than current treatment techniques.

It also avoids forcing combat veterans to relive their trauma in a bid to get better.

“Transcendental meditation is self-empowering, and can be practised just about anywhere at any time, without the need for specialised equipment or ongoing personnel support,” said Nidich, who was the lead author of the study published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.

‘Gave me my life back’

The main problem with existing PTSD treatment, according to Nidich, is that forcing veterans to relive their trauma means many never finish the courses.

Exposure therapy, although officially approved as a treatment by the US Veterans’ Association, is ineffective in up to 50 percent of patients and drop-out rates range from 30-45 percent.

“New treatments, including options not involving exposure to the traumatic experience, are needed for veterans who do not respond to treatment or drop-out due to discomfort,” said Nidich.

One study participant, a 32-year-old navy veteran whom authors identified only as Ms. K, said learning the meditation technique had “given me my life back.”

After being diagnosed as having suffered sexual trauma while on military service, her symptoms worsened until she drank to excess every night and sought to avoid human interaction.

After the transcendental meditation course, “I began to come out of my nightmares and face the battle I had ahead,” she said.

She added she had since applied for a job in a hospital.

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The Tendon transplant to work in a cross-band OP

In many cases, a SURGERY after a cruciate ligament tear is useful. Often, the cruciate ligament is replaced by the graft by a Tendon. As the OP runs out and what to keep in mind after the Operation.

An adverse movement, a sound like a whip, and a sudden pain, a ligament tear, sometimes faster than many suspect. The two cruciate ligaments are actually very robust, because they play for the stability of the knee joint has an important role: Together with the Outer and inner band forming the ligamentous apparatus of the knee joint, the knee with each movement and strengthens.

Seen from the side, the two bands intersect – therefore, you will have your name. A cross band runs from the Shin bone down the front to the thigh bone obliquely upward and backward (anterior cruciate ligament), the other one from the Shin from the bottom rear of the thigh obliquely to the front upper (posterior cruciate ligament). You have to prevent the femur sliding too far backwards and the Shin bone too far forward. Is one of the bands ripped (cruciate ligament rupture), can only produce an Operation with the necessary stability in the knee joint.

After an injury, and is suspected to have a ligament tear you should definitely go to the doctor. This can clarify with the patient what therapy is for a cure is necessary. Conservative methods, such as a targeted muscle building through physiotherapy, in each case, necessary in order to strengthen the knee after the injury. However, a pure muscle – building can replace alone, never a broken cross-band that shows the statistics: over 90 percent of the patient’s instability in the knee joint after sole treatment with conservative methods still.

About the author

Norbert Wynands is a specialist in surgery, accident surgery and sports medicine. He is senior physician of the Department of trauma and reconstructive surgery at the red cross hospital in Lindenberg.

Although the healing from the physical condition of the Person and your personal claim to your physical activity, the person Concerned, however: The younger and the more active, the more recommend is a surgery in which the ligament is replaced. With the following operational method of a cruciate ligament rupture can be treated.

Cross-band SURGERY with tendon graft

A virtually universal method of operation of the cruciate ligament by a tendon graft, the tendon of the thigh muscle (semitendinosus tendon, or quadriceps) or the patellar tendon of the patient is taken. The latter is the connection between the lower leg and kneecap. This minimally invasive, arthroscopic surgery (single-bundle reconstruction) is now one of the Standard methods of treatment and can be done up to one year after the injury.

When the Operation is first removed through a small incision in the replacement tendon. This is about a twenty to thirty centimeters long tendon is then placed four on top of each other, so that you are reduced to a quarter of the length and their tensile strength is significantly increased. Then be drilled in both the femur and in the tibia bone a small, approximately two-centimeter-long channels. By this, the two Ends are pulled tendon Replacement, tensioned and then fixed. The aim is that the replacement tendon in the subsequent conservation phase, with the bone fully fuses, so that the function of the cruciate ligament is largely restored.

Fasten the cross band set with a tear-resistant thread

The Fixation of the cruciate ligament set can be done using various techniques. One of these is the “Tight Rope”method is: The replacement tendon is pulled with a particularly tear-resistant medical thread (Tight Rope) by hauling technique in the drilled bone channels – first through the channel in the leg rail, then into the channel in the femur. This type of pulley allows the replacement tendon to take up slack in the best possible way.

In order to fix the string on the thigh bone, rolling papers, a small Metal about the filament introduced. As soon as the tendon was pulled through the top of the bone canal, the leaves on the outer side of the femur. Now it has a larger surface than the Radius of the drilled bone channel and thereby prevents a sliding Back of the cross-band set. Subsequently, the tendon is tensioned, and on the outer side of the opposite Shin bone is fixed with a screw.

With the time, the thread and the replacement tendon around the fabric, the Replacement ligament is based. In the subsequent conservation phase, the Tendon axes with the bone. The screw loosens over time, the metal flakes and the thread will remain in the knee of the patient.

Physical therapy is a Must

After a cruciate ligament tear should be waiting with the Operation until the knee of the patients want to completely off, and also is pain-free. Only then is it possible that the cruciate ligament replace the normal proportions of the Body. Often, concomitant injuries associated with cruciate ligament tears such as a meniscus tear. These are also only in a worn woolen knee completely visible and need to be treated in order to obtain an intact joint.

Even if surgery, everything runs optimally, can be replaced the function of the natural cruciate ligament, never to 100 percent. However, it can be manufactured by means of a minimally invasive procedure and the relevant volume set, the stability of the knee joint.

Without an accompanying physiotherapy and without the will of the patient, regain mobility and strength in the leg, but. Those who make the effort and diligently by the skilled person recommended, and injury to and healing degree of coordinated Exercises, therefore, has the prospect to be able to his knee after six to eight months to fully re-charge. An external knee brace (orthosis) is the patient in everyday life also safety, and prevents Twisting of the knee.

lasmiditan

INDIANAPOLIS, Nov. 14, 2018 /PRNewswire/ — Eli Lilly and Company (NYSE: LLY) has announced the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lasmiditan for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults.

Lasmiditan is an investigational, oral, centrally-penetrant, selective serotonin 5-HT1F agonist that is structurally and mechanistically distinct from other approved migraine therapies and lacks vasoconstrictive activity. It is the first and only molecule in the "-ditan" class under evaluation for the acute treatment of migraine in adults. If approved, it could represent the first significant innovation for the acute treatment of migraine in more than two decades.

The NDA for lasmiditan includes data from two Phase 3 single-attack studies (SAMURAI and SPARTAN), which evaluated the safety and efficacy of lasmiditan for the acute treatment of migraine. In both studies, at two hours following the first dose of lasmiditan, the percentage of patients who were migraine pain-free was significantly greater compared to placebo. These results were significant across all studied doses. Lasmiditan also met the key secondary endpoint, with a significantly greater percentage of patients free of their most bothersome symptom (MBS) compared with placebo at two hours following the first dose. In these studies, patients chose their MBS from sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound or nausea. The most commonly reported adverse events after lasmiditan dosing were dizziness, paresthesia, somnolence, fatigue, nausea, muscle weakness and numbness. Data from these studies were presented at the American Headache Society (AHS) annual meeting and the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) annual meeting.

About Migraine

Migraine is a disabling, neurologic disease characterized by recurrent episodes of severe headache accompanied by other symptoms including nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and changes in vision.1,2 More than 30 million American adults have migraine, with three times more women affected by migraine compared to men.3,4,5,6 According to the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey, the total unadjusted cost associated with migraine in the U.S. is estimated to be as high as $56 billion annually, yet migraine remains under-recognized and under-treated.3,7,8

About Lasmiditan

Lasmiditan is an investigational, first-in-class molecule under evaluation for the acute treatment of migraine. Lasmiditan uses a novel mechanism of action which selectively targets 5-HT1F receptors, including those expressed in the trigeminal pathway, and has been designed for the acute treatment of migraine without the vasoconstrictor activity associated with some migraine therapies. Data from two Phase 3 single-attack studies (SAMURAI and SPARTAN) have been presented at the American Headache Society (AHS) annual meeting and the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) annual meeting. In March 2017, Lilly completed the acquisition of CoLucid Pharmaceuticals, including lasmiditan, which was originally discovered at Lilly.

About Lilly's Commitment to Headache Disorders

For over 25 years, Lilly has been committed to helping people suffering from headache disorders, investigating more than a dozen different compounds for the treatment of migraine, cluster headache and other disabling headache disorders. These research programs have accelerated the understanding of these diseases and furthered the advancement of Lilly's comprehensive late-stage development programs studying galcanezumab-gnlm for prevention of migraine and cluster headache, and lasmiditan for the acute treatment of migraine. Our goal is to make life better for people with headache disorders by offering comprehensive solutions to prevent or stop these disabling diseases. The combined clinical, academic and professional experience of our experts helps us to build our research portfolio, identify challenges for healthcare providers and pinpoint the needs of patients living with migraine and cluster headache.

About Eli Lilly and Company

Lilly is a global healthcare leader that unites caring with discovery to make life better for people around the world. We were founded more than a century ago by a man committed to creating high-quality medicines that meet real needs, and today we remain true to that mission in all our work. Across the globe, Lilly employees work to discover and bring life-changing medicines to those who need them, improve the understanding and management of disease, and give back to communities through philanthropy and volunteerism. To learn more about Lilly, please visit us at www.lilly.com and www.lilly.com/newsroom/social-channels.  P-LLY

This press release contains forward-looking statements (as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995) about Emgality (galcanezumab-gnlm) as a treatment for patients with migraine and as a potential treatment for patients with episodic cluster headaches; lasmiditan as a potential treatment for patients with migraine; and tanezumab as a potential treatment for patients with osteoarthritis, chronic low back pain and cancer pain and reflects Lilly's current belief. However, as with any pharmaceutical product, there are substantial risks and uncertainties in the process of development and commercialization. Among other things, there can be no guarantee that Emgality, lasmiditan or tanezumab will receive additional regulatory approvals. There can also be no guarantee that any of these molecules will be commercially successful. For further discussion of these and other risks and uncertainties, see Lilly's most recent Form 10-K and Form 10-Q filings with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Except as required by law, Lilly undertakes no duty to update forward-looking statements to reflect events after the date of this release.

SOURCE Eli Lilly & Company

Posted: November 2018

lasmiditan FDA Approval History

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Why natural depression therapies are better than pills

Winter is upon us. And with it comes the annual worsening of depressive symptoms. Sadly, in the United States, suicide continues to claim more lives than firearms, and suicide rates are increasing in nearly all states. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that death by suicide has increased by 30 per cent since 1999 and a similar trend is observed in Canada.

I was distressed but not surprised to learn that these increases occurred over a period of time in which use of antidepressants skyrocketed by 65 per cent. By 2014, around one in eight Americans over the age of 12 reported recent antidepressant use.

I practice critical-care medicine in Guelph, Ontario. Sadly, 10 to 15 per cent of my practice is the resuscitation and life support of suicide and overdose patients.

It is not uncommon for these patients to have overdosed on the very antidepressants they were prescribed to prevent such a desperate act. The failures of antidepressants are a clear and present part of my clinical experience.

Wedded to drugs that barely work

Ten years ago, when finishing medical school, I carefully considered going into psychiatry. Ultimately, I was turned off by my impression that thought leaders in psychiatry were mistakenly wedded to a drug treatment that barely works.

A 2004 review by the Cochrane Foundation found that when compared against an “active” placebo (one that causes side effects similar to antidepressants), antidepressants were statistically of almost undetectable benefit.

Studies that compared antidepressants to “dummy” placebos showed larger but still underwhelming results. On the 52-point Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), patients who took the antidepressants fluoxetine (Paxil) or venlafaxine (Effexor) experienced an average decrease of 11.8 points, whereas those taking the placebo experienced an average decrease of 9.6 points.

I am not suggesting that antidepressants do not work. I am suggesting that they are given a precedence in our thinking about mental health that they do not deserve.

I leave it to readers to look at the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and decide for themselves whether a drop of 2.5 points is worth taking a pill with myriad potential side effects including weight gain, erectile dysfunction and internal bleeding.

It might be, but do note that taking an antidepressant does not seem to decrease the risk of suicide.

Natural therapies that work

The far more exciting and underplayed point, to me, is that multiple non-drug treatments have been shown to be as effective. As a staunch critic of alternative medical regimes such as chiropractic, acupuncture and homeopathy, it surprises me to note that the following “natural” therapies have rigorous, peer-reviewed scientific studies to support their use:

1. Exercise

In 2007, researchers at Duke University Medical Center in North Carolina randomly assigned patients to 30 minutes of walking or jogging three times a week, a commonly prescribed antidepressant (Zoloft), or placebo. Their results? Exercise was more effective than pills!

A 2016 review of all the available studies of exercise for depression confirms it: Exercise is an effective therapy. And it’s free!

2. Bright light therapy

You know how you just feel better after an hour out in the sun? There probably is something to it. Bright light therapy is an effort to duplicate the sun’s cheering effects in a controlled fashion. Typically, patients are asked to sit in front of a “light box” generating 10,000 Lux from 30 to 60 minutes first thing in the morning.

A review of studies using this therapy showed significant effect. The largest study showed a 2.5 point drop on the HDRS, roughly equal to that seen from antidepressants.

The sun gives 100,000 lux on a clear day and I can’t think of a reason why sunlight itself wouldn’t work, weather permitting.

3. Mediterranean diet

This one surprised me when it came out last year. Researchers in Australia randomly assigned depressed patients to receive either nutritional counselling or placebo social support.

The nutritionists recommended a Mediterranean diet, modified to include local unprocessed foods.

Thirty-two per cent of the depressed dieters experienced remission versus eight per cent of those who only received social support, a far larger effect than seen in antidepressant trials.

4. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

This is the best recognized of the “natural” treatments for depression and the evidence is indisputable.

CBT is as effective as antidepressants but more expensive in the short term. However, antidepressants stop working when you stop taking them, whereas the benefits of CBT seem to last.

And as an aside, it is very difficult to overdose fatally on a bottle of therapy.

I freely admit that the trials I have mentioned are smaller than the major antidepressant trials. But whereas antidepressants are projected to bring in almost $17 billion a year for the pharmaceutical industry globally by 2020, the jogging and sunlight industries will never have the resources to fund massive international trials. With this in mind, I am convinced that they are at least as worthwhile as the pills.

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Pancreatic cancer death rates rising across Europe, report reveals

Pancreatic cancer death rates in the European Union (EU) have increased by 5% between 1990 and 2016, a report launched today reveals. This is the highest increase in any of the EU’s top five cancer killers which, as well as pancreatic cancer, includes lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer.

‘Pancreatic Cancer Across Europe’, published by United European Gastroenterology (UEG) to coincide with World Pancreatic Cancer Day, examines the past and current state of pancreatic cancer care and treatment, as well as the future prospects, such as targeting the microbiome, for improving the prognosis for patients. Whilst lung, breast and colorectal cancer have seen significant reductions in death rates since 1990, deaths from pancreatic cancer continue to rise. Experts also believe that pancreatic cancer has now overtaken breast cancer as the third leading cause of death from cancer in the EU.

Pancreatic cancer has the lowest survival of all cancers in Europe. Responsible for over 95,000 EU deaths every year, the median survival time at the point of diagnosis is just 4.6 months, with patients losing 98% of their healthy life expectancy5. Often referred to as ‘the silent killer’, symptoms can be hard to identify, thus making it difficult to diagnose the disease early which is essential for life-saving surgery.

Despite the rise in death rates and dreadfully low survival rates, pancreatic cancer receives less than 2% of all cancer research funding in Europe. Markus Peck, UEG expert, explains, “If we are to take a stand against the continent’s deadliest cancer, we must address the insufficient research funding; that is where the European Union can lead the way. Whilst medical and scientific innovations have positively changed the prospects for many cancer patients, those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have not been blessed with much clinically meaningful progress. To deliver earlier diagnoses and improved treatments we need to engage now in more basic as well as applied research to see real progress for our patients in the years to come.”

Microbiome—the key to turning the tide?

After forty years of limited progress in pancreatic cancer research, experts claim that new treatment options could finally be on the horizon as researchers investigate how changing the pancreas’ microbiome may help to slow tumour growth and enable the body to develop its own ‘defence mechanism’. The microbial population of a cancerous pancreas has been found to be approximately 1,000 times larger than that of a non-cancerous pancreas and research has shown that removing bacteria from the gut and pancreas slowed cancer growth and ‘reprogrammed’ immune cells to react against cancer cells.

This development could lead to significant changes in clinical practice as removing bacterial species could improve the efficacy of chemotherapy or immunotherapy, offering hope that clinicians will finally be able to slow tumour growth, alter metastatic behaviour and ultimately change the disease’s progression.

Professor Thomas Seufferlein, pancreatic cancer expert, comments, “Research looking at the impact of the microbiome on pancreatic cancer is a particularly exciting new area, as the pancreas was previously thought of as a sterile organ. Such research will also improve our understanding of the microenvironment in a metastatic setting and how the tumour responds to its environment. This will inform the metastatic behaviour and ultimately alter disease progression.”

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Why some people overeat when they’re upset

The idea of eating a tub of ice cream to cope with being upset has become a bit cliche. Though some might not need a tub of chocolate swirl to help perk themselves up again, there do seem to be systematic differences in the way that people cope with upsetting events, with some more likely to find solace in food than others.

This matters because when eating to cope with negative feelings is part of a broader tendency to overeat, it is likely to be associated with obesity and being overweight. More people than ever are now overweight and obese, with recent estimates suggesting that by 2025, 2.7 billion adults worldwide will be affected by obesity, risking health issues such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.

So why do some people manage their emotions with food while others don’t? One psychological concept that helps to explain this difference is adult attachment orientation. Depending on the extent to which we fear abandonment by those we love, adults fall somewhere on the dimension of “attachment anxiety”. Where we fall on this dimension (high or low) determines a set of expectations about how we and others behave in personal relationships. These are developed as a response to the care we received as an infant and this can characterise your attachment style.

A recent meta-analysis – a study bringing together the results of many other studies – showed that the higher a person’s attachment anxiety, the more they engage in unhealthy eating behaviours, with a knock-on effect on body mass index (BMI). Two other studies have also shown that patients undergoing weight loss surgery are likely to have higher attachment anxiety scores than a comparable lean population, and it is thought that this difference is partly explained by the tendency to overeat.

Understanding attachment anxiety

For a long time, we have known that people who are have high attachment anxiety are more likely to both notice upsetting things and find it harder to manage their emotions when upset. This is because of how attachment orientations come about in the first place. The dynamics and feelings relating to our most important long-term relationships, including in early life, act as a templates that guide our behaviour in subsequent relationships and in stressful situations.

If we receive consistent care from a caregiver, which includes helping us to cope with problems in life, we develop a secure attachment orientation. For people high in security, when a negative life event occurs, they are able to seek support from others or soothe themselves by thinking about the sorts of things that their caregiver or other significant person would say to them in that situation.

However, inconsistent care – where the caregiver sometimes responds to another’s needs but at other times does not – leads to attachment anxiety and a fear that our needs won’t be met. When negative life events occur, support from others is sought but perceived as unreliable. People with high attachment anxiety are also less able to self-soothe than people with a secure attachment.

We recently tested whether this poor emotional management could explain why people with attachment anxiety are more likely to overeat. Importantly, we found that for people high in attachment anxiety it was harder to disengage from whatever was upsetting them and to get on with what they were supposed to be doing. These negative emotions were managed with food and this related to a higher BMI.

It is important to note, however, that this is only one factor among many that can influence overeating and BMI. We cannot say that attachment anxiety causes overeating and weight gain. It might be that overeating and weight gain influences our attachment orientation, or it could be a bit of both.

Managing eating behaviour

There are two approaches that appear promising for attachment anxious individuals seeking to manage their eating behaviour. These involve targeting the specific attachment orientation itself and/or improving emotion regulation skills in general.

To target attachment orientation, one possibility is a psychological technique called “security priming” designed to make people behave like “secures”, who cope well with negative life events. It results in beneficial effects more generally, such as engaging in more pro-social behaviours. One study showed that priming is related to snack intake. When people are asked to reflect on secure relationships in their life they eat less in a later snacking episode than when asked to reflect on anxious relationships in their life (though this work is very preliminary and needs replicating and extending).

Looking at emotion regulation, a recently published paper highlighted the importance of emotional eaters focusing on skills such as coping with stress rather than calorie restriction, when seeking to lose weight. This study did not look solely at those with attachment anxiety, however, so further work is needed explore this further.

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Tasteless food is bad for the psyche

The need to live in conditions, when a person is forced to eat tasteless food can harm the health of the psyche, the scientists from Israel. According to their conclusion, tasteless, monotonous food harmful for the psyche – it can cause severe depression and other disorders.

The experts stated: if the person does not like the food he uses and he considers it to be tasteless, it may lead to the development of mental health problems – depression, apathy, bouts of severe fatigue, or uncontrollable outbreaks of irritation and aggression. According to scientists, with a system consumption of tasteless food, the body loses the nutrients that are necessary for the proper functioning of the internal organs and nervous system.

The most negative is bad and tasteless food affects people who already suffer from various disorders depressive properties, said the researchers. In risk in women who often eat tasteless food for them in order to lose weight and slimness, experts say. For the female psyche monotonous and poor diet in particular is harmful because women are initially more susceptible to developing emotional disorders.

Those who eat monotonous and tasteless, often lack the vitamins, minerals, enzymes and other nutrients that come from food, say the authors of the project. In addition, the lack of variety in the diet suppresses the appetite and reduces taste sensitivity.

Earlier Magicforum wrote about how dangerous to health food at night.

Chemists prove chromones are effective against Alzheimer’s disease

RUDN chemists synthesized a range of biologically active molecules called chromones and demonstrated their use in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The results of the work were published in the Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry journal.

Alzheimer’s disease is a progredient form of dementia causing irreversible deterioration of cognitive functions (attention, memory, orientation, and thinking) and resulting in complete disintegration of personality. According to the World Health Association, about 6-7 million people are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease annually. RUDN chemists with their colleagues from IPAC RAS and Lomonosov MSU synthesized new compounds that are able to stop the progression of this disease and studied their biological activity.

Alzheimer’s disease is associated with the damage of the central or peripheral nervous system. A special role in the work of the nervous system is played by a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine that helps a neural impulse move between neurons and then from neurons to muscles. Reduced levels of acetylcholine are one of the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease. Today’s treatment methods are reduced to prolonging the activity of the remaining acetylcholine with drugs that slow down its disintegration and partially compensate for its loss.

The disintegration of acetylcholine is affected by several substances. The main role in the process is played by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). In the course of development of the Alzheimer’s it’s the activity of BChE that increases. By reducing it, one may slow down the disintegration of acetylcholine. RUDN chemists managed to achieve this effect using chromones—biologically active molecules that have been previously successfully used in the treatment of other conditions. In their previous works the authors suggested a new way of synthesizing substituted chromones compounds, and in this research demonstrated their potential as an efficient anti-Alzheimer’s therapy.

“We found chromones interesting because of their pharmacological activity. Their derivatives appeared to have anti-cancer, anti-viral (including anti-HIV), anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant properties. It was especially important for our studies that chromones and their derivatives played an important role as antioxidants and acceptors of radicals,” said Larisa Kulikova, a candidate of chemistry, and a lecturer of the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics, and Natural Sciences at RUDN.

To evaluate the pharmacological activity of the obtained substances, the scientists used kinetic methods and modeling. The results of screenings showed that the new substances efficiently slowed down the activity of BChE. In the future the team hopes to improve the synthesis method and to obtain chemical compounds with antioxidant as well as BChE-suppressing properties. A substance like that would be able to slow down BChE and at the same time to reduce the so-called oxidative stress—the disbalance between the number of active oxygen or nitrogen compounds and the inability of the body to process them leading to massive cell death.

More information:
Galina F. Makhaeva et al. Synthesis, molecular docking, and biological activity of 2-vinyl chromones: Toward selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors for potential Alzheimer’s disease therapeutics, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2018.08.010

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