What drugs in Russia will become cheaper?

At a recent meeting, the Russian Government developed and approved a new method of pricing for essential medicines (EDL). As a result, in Russia may drop the prices of these drugs in 2019-2020: after you have generated rates using the new method. Life understood what medicines are cheaper and by how much.

According to innovations, the price of essential medicines on the Russian market should not be higher than in Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Turkey, France, Czech Republic and in the country-the manufacturer.

According to RBC with reference to experts, the price should be no higher than the lowest in the reference countries. In the list, as noted, included those States which are comparable to the Russian economy.
What is cheaper
Specializing in pharmaceutical topics lawyer Nina Belozertseva noted that prices for some essential drugs will be reduced. Moreover, the FAS and the Ministry of health can actively monitor the situation including on the international market.

The experts in the comments do not presume to speak about what meds cheaper. On average, expected the price of essential drugs may drop quite significantly.

In the list of essential drugs falls more than 600 drugs from 4,7 thousand manufacturers. Their government pays for hospitals (current at 2018 list see here). And that they will be new to consider the price.

The prices of medicines set by best canadian pharmacy the government, the producers may submit applications indicating their desired price. The Ministry of health and the FAS confirm these prices or denied.

Experts predict a 10% rise in prices for those drugs that are not classified as vital. Thus, specialists of “Pharmacy Guild” they say that this is due primarily to the increase in the exchange rate. Natalia Kruglova is an expert in the field of pharmacy sales and pharmacy believes that significant price increases will have a negative impact likely on pharmacies.

— Most likely, the expenses incurred by distributors and pharmacies. That is, the amount will be large, and the prices are set as in other countries, with less volume. As for the pharmacies and their survival against this background, there is generally questionable. Because they have such sales of essential drugs, the expert said.

They will shift the costs to be incurred in connection with the establishment of the top price level on the same category — not vital. As the expert noted, the prices will rise also because of the fall of the ruble and the increase in VAT from 18% to 20%.

The use of antibiotics is mavoller



Many bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. But in the meantime &Auml prescribe;the means of doctors thoughtful and more focused than even a few years ago. In other areas, a change in thinking takes place

Researchers are testing resistance with Antibiotikapläleaves on a Näbreeding ground for. The effect of the substance, wäfirst of all, it grass not a Bacteria

Week &Auml knew;doctors in GroßBritain is not whether you k&ouml help your patients;can. The man had last Winter on a Südost­trip to Asia with the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea (Gonorrhö) plugged – a bacterial infection with purulent discharge, pain and Burning during urination. No antibiotic relieved the discomfort. It was the world’s first infection with gonorrhea pathogens (gonococcus), which responded to none of the usually effective means.

Schließlich ver­­the &Auml abreichten;a Carbapenem doctors, a substance to Bekäcombat other bacterial pathogens. With Success. In April, finally the message: The man is healed. The grundsäadditional Problem, however, remains: more and more bacteria are not more of antibiotics "beeindrucken". They are resistant to the active ingredients. Für the affected patients means that There are few or no drugs that can help you.

In some infections, the Reserve failure-antibiotics

Already at the beginning of 2017 veröpublished by the world health organization (WHO), a list of ten bacteria against which new antibiotics are most urgently benöbe taken. To many agents adapted gonococcal zämiss. However, the hömost Priorität is für resistant variants of bacteria to our healthy natünatural Flora gehören: the intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli.

The Problem is, these microbes, if they cause infections. You threaten, especially severely ill and immuno-compromised patients in hospitals. Antibiotics to keep the Infected from serious Verlächeck to death. Sometimes the last means of so-called Reserve antibiotics, which include carbapenems z&auml failure even;miss. Because such Fälle in the world are on the increase, warns the WHO in front of a post-antibiotic era – a Situation in which gewösimilar bacterial infections are a threat.

"To Glück, we are in Germany of such a scenario, still a good Stück. The vast majority of patients köwe can behandeln", Dr. Tim Eckmanns, Epidemio&shy says;Lodge at the Robert-Koch-Institute in Berlin. "But sometimes &Auml have;doctors in this country only two, one, or no effective antibiotic in the Hand." Up to 4000 people die in Germany jäannually of infections with multi-resistant bacteria, schäexperts will appreciate. Für, Eckmanns still there’s no reason for the black painting: "We köcan very much do to the verfüavailable antibiotics läto keep the Viking effect."

Maßtook für a meaningful use of antibiotics in clinics

Äsimilar to Dr. Katja de With, head of the Department of f&uuml sees it;r Clinical In­­fektiologie at the University hospital of the Technical Universität Dresden: "Üeverywhere in the world to take resistance. But we köcan prevent you from außhe was out of control." However, müsse itself dafür a lot of ächange. In Germany, it was made a lot lately. For example, with so-called "Antibiotic Steward­ship"-Programs in Krankenhäusers.

Is meant to be a Bübundle of Maßtook to medicines for Bakte­rien so that the bestmöaligned therapy success bring – without the dissemination of resistance to föpromote. "I have no clinic is well-known, the not improvements bemüht", de With says. The pharmacist, internist, and infectious disease login coordinates the training für medical personnel. Together with other experts, she has außalso a guideline for the vernüfuture use of antibiotics in hospitals was developed.

What l&auml reach;sst, if you implement the guidelines consistently, could de With show. Her Team reduced the antibiotic consumption at the University hospital Dresden in füfive years of 20 percent. The so-called infectiology ward rounds in intensive care units have played a key role. De With: "We überprüfen für each patient, why he gets antibiotics. If we see no reason, we finish the therapy."

Targeted treatment when the pathogen is identified

What needs to be done in a particular case, decides to de With together with the Ädoctors, micro-biologists and pharmacists in the clinic. Often, the medication is adjusted. Background: Many patients get zunäfirst of all, Antibio­internship, without the cause of the infection is not known. If the Laborunter­search the pathogen später have identified, can be targeted in treatment.

For example, ­against pneumococci with a Lungenentzümaking. "In contrast, benzyl penicillin is still the best Me­dikament, if the bacteria ansprechen&quot it;, de With says. Benzyl penicillin is one of the äone of the oldest still-used group of antibiotics. It is the substance, which the Scot Alexander Fleming in 1928 from a fungus isolated – the beginning of the antibiotic era. A further advantage of Penizillinen: you will drive the development of resistance less rapidly than many später developed antibiotics.

Less side effects by sorgfävalid antibiotic-use

But sorgfäRenova therapy decisions not only reduce the risk of invincible agents, they also reduce the side effects für patients: about Durchfälle, abdominal pain, Ünausea and allergic reactions. A particularly gefürch­tete a result of antibiotics-are gifts Darmentzündungen, caused by Clostridium difficilebacteria. You köcan be very difficult to run and even töSouth. Clostridium difficile thrives especially well if ­Drugs the ürest of the gut flora ­­geschähave damaged.

In the case of therapies with so-called fluoro-quinolones and the newer cephalosporins, particularly h&auml happens;frequently. "We have the use of these antibiotics in the last four years in our clinic strongly eingeschränkt", Professor Mathias Pletz, Director of the Institute f&uuml says;r infection medicine and hospital hygiene at the University hospital of Jena and member of the management Board of the German society für infectious diseases. With success: The number of Clostridium difficile caused Darmentzüinventions dropped to 60 percent.

To a lot of Reserve antibiotics in the outpatient setting

Cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are not intended for the treatment of serious bacterial infections when other agents act. But also established Ädoctors in Germany ver­arrange auffäcompletely häfrequently. "We use Reserve antibiotics in the outpatient area to be clueless. Läas Sweden has almost come without you aus", Pletz criticized.

But there is also a pleasing development in established Ädoctors: Since 2008, decreased their antibiotic ­Regulations in children 33, Säuglingen by 51 percent. This shows an analysis of the KaufmäFinnish health insurance. Ädoctors dispense about with feverish Erkältungen ömore often than früon a recipe. With good reason: Because most viruses are the cause. ­Antibiotics are effective only against bacteria.

Everyone can contribute something, that resistance to antibiotics continue to increase. How you can find out in the Video

Guidelines to help in deciding whether the clinical picture of a patient für or against an antibiotic is talking about. Also blood tests köyou can have more clarity. They measure substances in the blood by bacterial pathogens erhöhen. Infection expert Pletz: "Studies show that these Tests can be saved in patients with respiratory 40 percent of infections to antibiotics." However, established Ädoctors use the Tests only rarely. Because a lab analysis is required, the result only after one to two days. And rapid tests that the doctor in his practice durchführt will not be refunded to cover costs of the funds.

Animal medicine and Abwäwater as further sources of problems

Experts agree: There is a lot of room f&uuml remains;r further improvements – also in veterinary medicine. Here are the antibiotics used in f&uuml managed;five years to üabout the Häto lower half. Undoubtedly a success. "However, Colistin is the antibiotic, the animals at the vierthämost common is prescribed. Thus, the resistance to rise against this Mittel", Eckmanns says. Him wäit re like most, you würde Colistin from animal medicine to banish. Because fücertain infections in humans, it is the last Reserve.

How far Colistin-resistance, widely used, show the latest data of the Institute für Hygiene and Öpublic health at the Universitätsklinikum Bonn. It is analyzed in German Abwäwaters multi-resistant bacteria, the emergency list is available on the WHO-at the very top. Result: In stämunicipal Abwäwaters were 28 percent against four classes of Drug-resistant – Carbapenems including. Almost 10 percent were zusäaddition of Colistin to be adjusted. Für the head of the Institute, Professor Martin Exner, resulting from new Ansätze für the Eindäresult of resistance: "Previously, it was thought, the human or the animal is the source. But obviously Abw&auml play;sser für the load on the environment, and the müwe left küin the future berüto be taken into account."

In KläRS held a lively exchange of drug resistance

It ünot surprised, then, that multi-drug resistant variants in Flüsse, and even in lakes. The extent to which municipal KläRS are suitable to remove resistant bacteria is the subject of current research. The project, the Exner coordinated, is expected to be completed in 2019. Then the participating experts want to make recommendations.

One result is already clear now: In KläRS finds among bacteria, there is a lively exchange of genetic material with resistance to information – üabout Species boundaries. And also f&uuml is;r the Abwässer of Krankenhäusers. There is, in fact, that you für patients to a Problem. How about in a Hessian hospital for a good four years. On 133 patients to a variety of intestinal bacteria, all with the same resistance characteristic f&uuml found;r carbapenems.

Exner’s Team was asked to help. After painstaking detective work, it turned out: bacteria in the Wasserablächeck the patient’s room, the origin of the resistance. Spirals, with those clogged pipes freigeräumt, spread the microbes to the Spüle the Küche. From there they came to eat. The outbreak turned out OK. The bacteria were a little infektiös and the patient in fairly good health. The example shows, however, the importance of a consistent Hygiene in all areas of hospitals is to prevent infections and resistance einzudäthe right to decide.

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First ever Ebola drug trial begins in Democratic Republic of the Congo

First-of-its-kind Ebola drug trial begins in the Democratic Republic of the Congo as more than 400 people have now been struck down by the killer virus

  • Scientists will officially measure the effects of four experimental drugs
  • Officials say stopping the outbreak is their priority, but research will be done too
  • Comparing the success of new drugs could lead to a cure for the deadly illness
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A world-first drug trial for Ebola has begun in the Democratic Republic of the Congo amid a killer outbreak.

Researchers have begun studying the effects of four pioneering medications being given out in the African nation, where 236 people have died already.

More than 160 people there have already been treated with the drugs, and the way people are treated won’t change, but scientists will now be able to compare them.

The announcement came after a devastating week, when 13 cases were confirmed on Wednesday – a one-day record – and officials confirmed even newborn babies are catching the virus.


Some 236 people are believed to have died of Ebola in the Democratic of the Congo outbreak, which began in August – 189 deaths are confirmed to have been directly caused by Ebola


Health workers must be covered from head to toe at all times because Ebola spreads through contact with infected people – pictured, medics carry a bible to a patient in Butembo

The World Health Organization yesterday announced scientists would begin a multi-drug trial as the epidemic rages on.

Four experimental drugs are being used to try and combat the disease – mAb 114, ZMapp, Remdesivir and Regeneron. Patients will get one of the four, but researchers won’t know which they were given until after the study.

By comparing how well these work, scientists will be moving towards curing the disease and slashing the death tolls in future outbreaks.

‘While our focus remains on bringing this outbreak to an end, the launch of the randomised control trial is an important step toward finally finding an Ebola treatment that will save lives,’ said WHO director-general Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

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The Ebola outbreak in DRC began in August and, since, is believed to have infected 412 people and killed 236. Some 365 of those cases and 189 of the deaths are confirmed.

Because the data collected in the North Kivu epidemic is unlikely to be sufficient for a complete study, the country’s health ministry said the clinical trial may extend over a five-year period to cover Ebola outbreaks in other countries.

‘Our country is struck with Ebola outbreaks too often, which also means we have unique expertise in combatting it,’ said DRC’s minister of health Dr Oly Ilunga Kalenga.

‘These trials will contribute to building that knowledge, while we continue to respond on every front to bring the current outbreak to an end.’ 

The outbreak has been plagued by security problems, with health workers attacked by rebels in districts where the virus has been spreading.


Hundreds of health workers are stationed around the city of Beni in Democratic Republic of the Congo to try and contain a deadly Ebola outbreak (pictured, health workers at the Doctors Without Borders treatment centre in Butembo)

Health workers had to be evacuated from their hotel after it was hit by a shell in a nearby armed rebel attack earlier this month.

Some 16 World Health Organization staff were taken out of the city of Beni, where most of the outbreak is happening. 

The organisation’s director general said he heard ‘heavy gunfire’ over the phone, and a shell hit the workers’ hotel but didn’t explode.

Violence is common in the central African country and has made it difficult to stop the Ebola outbreak – earlier in the same week eight United Nations peacekeepers and 12 local soldiers died in an ambush. 


People thought to have Ebola are quarantined in medical treatment centres like the one, pictured, run by Doctors Without Borders in the city of Bunia, 200km from Beni

Armed groups have kidnapped and killed people trying to treat the sick, and ongoing conflict has made locals suspicious of official health workers.

Dr Ghebreyesus added: ‘We honour the memory of those who have died battling this outbreak, and deplore the continuing threats on the security of those still working to end it.’

Another factor making it harder to combat the outbreak is the widespread use of pop-up unofficial medical centres.

People are seeking help in makeshift clinics, some of which are just rooms in people’s houses which don’t have running water and reuse needles.  

‘Those facilities, we believe, are one of the major drivers of transmission,’ said Peter Salama, the WHO’s emergency response chief.


Ebola causes a fever and severe weakness – pictured, health workers carry a patient through an Ebola treatment centre in Butembo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, on November 3

‘Probably more than 50 per cent of cases in Beni have been driven from these tradi-modern health care facilities, and the fact that hygiene and injection practices in these areas are relatively unsafe.’

Experts realised the way the disease was spreading had changed in October, when unprecedented numbers of children started becoming infected.

Health workers found these were children being treated for malaria in the unofficial health centres – they believe people are confusing the two diseases because early symptoms, including fever, weakness and vomiting, are the same.

HAS THE DRC HAD AN EBOLA OUTBREAK BEFORE?

DRC escaped the brutal Ebola pandemic that began in 2014, which was finally declared over in January 2016 – but it was struck by a smaller outbreak last year.

Four DRC residents died from the virus in 2017. The outbreak lasted just 42 days and international aid teams were praised for their prompt responses.

The new outbreak is the DRC’s tenth since the discovery of Ebola in the country in 1976, named after the river. The outbreak earlier this summer was its ninth.

Health experts credit an awareness of the disease among the population and local medical staff’s experience treating for past successes containing its spread.

DRC’s vast, remote geography also gives it an advantage, as outbreaks are often localised and relatively easy to isolate.

Officials in the country this month said they have never seen such a devastating outbreak.

‘No other epidemic in the world has been as complex as the one we are currently experiencing,’ said Dr Oly Ilunga Kalenga, the DRC’s health minister.

Having started on August 1, it is the 10th outbreak in the country since the disease, which causes extreme fever, bleeding and diarrhoea, was first discovered there 42 years ago.

‘This epidemic remains dangerous and unpredictable, and we must not let our guard down,’ said Dr Kalenga.

‘We must continue to pursue a very dynamic response that requires permanent readjustments and real ownership at the community level.’

He added: ‘Since their arrival in the region, the response teams have faced threats, physical assaults, repeated destruction of their equipment, and kidnapping.

‘Two of our colleagues in the Rapid Response Medical Unit even lost their lives in an attack.’

Dr Kalenga said teams responding to the outbreak are violently attacked, on average, three to four times a week.

In October, militants killed 11 civilians and a soldier in Beni, a city with a population of around 230,000 people where the outbreak is thought to have started.

Despite facing resistance from people who don’t want health workers treating them, the government has managed to vaccinate more than 27,000 people.

Those who are known to have come into contact with others who had the disease have been targeted by the vaccination programme.


Of the 366 people thought to have been infected with Ebola during the DRC’s outbreak, 319 of those have been confirmed – pictured, medical workers at the Doctors Without Borders treatment centre in Butembo help a patient whose illness has not been confirmed


An unusually high number of children have been infected in this outbreak, officials say – pictured, a worker carries a swaddled four-day-old baby thought to have caught the virus

Unusually, children are being badly affected because they’re catching the virus while in medical clinics for other reasons, experts say.

Jessica Illunga, a spokesperson for the health ministry in DRC said in October: ‘There is an abnormally high number of children who have contracted and died of Ebola in Beni.

‘Normally, in every Ebola epidemic, children are not as affected.’

Dr Peter Salama, emergency response chief at the World Health Organization (WHO), last month warned the current Ebola outbreak would only get worse.

The combination of rebel violence and pre-election unrest is creating a ‘perfect storm’ for an even worse epidemic, he said. 

WHAT IS EBOLA AND HOW DEADLY IS IT?

Ebola, a haemorrhagic fever, killed at least 11,000 across the world after it decimated West Africa and spread rapidly over the space of two years.

That pandemic was officially declared over back in January 2016, when Liberia was announced to be Ebola-free by the WHO.

The country, rocked by back-to-back civil wars that ended in 2003, was hit the hardest by the fever, with 40 per cent of the deaths having occurred there.

Sierra Leone reported the highest number of Ebola cases, with nearly of all those infected having been residents of the nation.

WHERE DID IT BEGIN? 

An analysis, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found the outbreak began in Guinea – which neighbours Liberia and Sierra Leone.

A team of international researchers were able to trace the pandemic back to a two-year-old boy in Meliandou – about 400 miles (650km) from the capital, Conakry.

Emile Ouamouno, known more commonly as Patient Zero, may have contracted the deadly virus by playing with bats in a hollow tree, a study suggested.

HOW MANY PEOPLE WERE STRUCK DOWN? 

Figures show nearly 29,000 people were infected from Ebola – meaning the virus killed around 40 per cent of those it struck.

Cases and deaths were also reported in Nigeria, Mali and the US – but on a much smaller scale, with 15 fatalities between the three nations.

Health officials in Guinea reported a mysterious bug in the south-eastern regions of the country before the WHO confirmed it was Ebola. 

Ebola was first identified by scientists in 1976, but the most recent outbreak dwarfed all other ones recorded in history, figures show.

HOW DID HUMANS CONTRACT THE VIRUS? 

Scientists believe Ebola is most often passed to humans by fruit bats, but antelope, porcupines, gorillas and chimpanzees could also be to blame.

It can be transmitted between humans through blood, secretions and other bodily fluids of people – and surfaces – that have been infected.

IS THERE A TREATMENT? 

The WHO warns that there is ‘no proven treatment’ for Ebola – but dozens of drugs and jabs are being tested in case of a similarly devastating outbreak.

Hope exists though, after an experimental vaccine, called rVSV-ZEBOV, protected nearly 6,000 people. The results were published in The Lancet journal. 

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