Researchers develop personalized medicine tool for inherited colorectal cancer syndrome

An international team of researchers led by Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah (U of U) has developed, calibrated, and validated a novel tool for identifying the genetic changes in Lynch syndrome genes that are likely to be responsible for causing symptoms of the disease. The results were published this week in the journal Genetics in Medicine.

Lynch syndrome is a hereditary condition that results in higher rates of colon, endometrial, and other cancers. If unmanaged, individuals with Lynch syndrome have a 75 percent lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer. It is believed that approximately five percent of all colorectal cancer cases are associated with this syndrome.

Millions of distinct changes are possible in genes that control health, and it is a massive undertaking to identify which specific changes are associated with developing disease. Some genetic changes are believed to have no impact at all, while others carry significant risk.

Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute work to understand and classify which gene changes are likeliest to cause disease, as well as to identify appropriate strategies to help manage disease risk.

This groundbreaking study was led by Sean Tavtigian, Ph.D., a cancer researcher at HCI and professor of oncological sciences at the U of U. The work was built on a decade-long international collaboration. “Correctly identifying which of the genetic changes we observe actually result in disease is fundamentally important in clinical care,” said Tavtigian. “Having clarity on this issue has the potential to add years to patients’ lives, reduce anxiety about disease risk, and use health care dollars more efficiently.”

The team used a laboratory test previously developed by the group of Niels de Wind, Ph.D., associate professor of human genetics at the Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands, to characterize genetic changes associated with disease risk. The lab test, called the Cell-free in vitro MMR Activity (CIMRA) assay, improves classification of variants of uncertain significance in Lynch syndrome. “The test is rapid and accurate,” said de Wind. In the current study, the test was thoroughly calibrated and validated, such that its results could now be integrated with computer-based modeling and clinical data. As a result, this study provides an analytical tool suitable for clinical use to assess the potential of changes in Lynch syndrome genes to cause disease.

“A key point is that we believe the accuracy of the tool combining the CIMRA test with the previously published computational analysis to be about 97 percent, making it appropriate for clinical use,” said Tavtigian. de Wind added that the work “represents a new pinnacle in the classification of genetic variation.”

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What drugs in Russia will become cheaper?

At a recent meeting, the Russian Government developed and approved a new method of pricing for essential medicines (EDL). As a result, in Russia may drop the prices of these drugs in 2019-2020: after you have generated rates using the new method. Life understood what medicines are cheaper and by how much.

According to innovations, the price of essential medicines on the Russian market should not be higher than in Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Turkey, France, Czech Republic and in the country-the manufacturer.

According to RBC with reference to experts, the price should be no higher than the lowest in the reference countries. In the list, as noted, included those States which are comparable to the Russian economy.
What is cheaper
Specializing in pharmaceutical topics lawyer Nina Belozertseva noted that prices for some essential drugs will be reduced. Moreover, the FAS and the Ministry of health can actively monitor the situation including on the international market.

The experts in the comments do not presume to speak about what meds cheaper. On average, expected the price of essential drugs may drop quite significantly.

In the list of essential drugs falls more than 600 drugs from 4,7 thousand manufacturers. Their government pays for hospitals (current at 2018 list see here). And that they will be new to consider the price.

The prices of medicines set by best canadian pharmacy the government, the producers may submit applications indicating their desired price. The Ministry of health and the FAS confirm these prices or denied.

Experts predict a 10% rise in prices for those drugs that are not classified as vital. Thus, specialists of “Pharmacy Guild” they say that this is due primarily to the increase in the exchange rate. Natalia Kruglova is an expert in the field of pharmacy sales and pharmacy believes that significant price increases will have a negative impact likely on pharmacies.

— Most likely, the expenses incurred by distributors and pharmacies. That is, the amount will be large, and the prices are set as in other countries, with less volume. As for the pharmacies and their survival against this background, there is generally questionable. Because they have such sales of essential drugs, the expert said.

They will shift the costs to be incurred in connection with the establishment of the top price level on the same category — not vital. As the expert noted, the prices will rise also because of the fall of the ruble and the increase in VAT from 18% to 20%.

High cholesterol: what is dangerous and how to reduce?

The contents

How dangerous is high cholesterol

What causes high cholesterol?

Foods that lower cholesterol

It is believed that high cholesterol is extremely dangerous for human health. In this article we will tell you whether this really is and what can be done to reduce it.

How dangerous is high cholesterol

Cholesterol is important for everyone, doctors say. But should maintain it in the normal range, otherwise you may have different consequences. There are two types of cholesterol high and low density. Threat the second type, because it carries fat cells in blood vessels, contributing to the formation of fatty plaques. But first removes fat from the cells. Most interesting is that no special measurements people are not able to understand what is the level of cholesterol. Symptoms that indicate the high level, as there are none.

What is dangerous high cholesterol? It leads to the appearance of plaques, the lumen of the blood vessels becomes smaller. Increased cholesterol levels can also develop angina, the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not excluded that appears coronary heart disease, in which there is damage to the arteries, delivering oxygen and blood to the heart muscle. Very often, when a high level of cholesterol is formed by the blockage of the arteries and raises the risk of atherosclerosis.

Despite the fact that by itself, high cholesterol does not cause any symptoms, concomitant diseases have certain symptoms. These include:

  • Pain in legs after slight exertion;
  • Angina by reducing the lumen of the vessels;
  • The rupture of blood vessels;
  • The presence of clots in the blood;
  • Heart failure;
  • The rupture of plaques;
  • The formation of yellow spots on the skin, often on the eye area.

What causes high cholesterol?

Quite often people blame themselves for the fact that the level of cholesterol higher than normal. One of the most basic indicators of this is the improper diet. There are numerous products in which cholesterol is exceeded. As a result, he grows in the human body. Especially dangerous in this case saturated fats, which in excess have a fatty meat, sweet products, sausages, hard cheeses.

Another precipitating factor is a sedentary lifestyle. Those who do not engage in any activity, are more prone to high cholesterol. This is confirmed by many studies.

The third reason is the presence of harmful habits. The most harmful in this respect can be called Smoking and alcohol. They cause the cholesterol level becomes higher.

Finally, the level of cholesterol increases due to excess weight, which often occurs in particular because of the complex of the mentioned factors. Often these people eat foods that have high cholesterol.

There are some factors that have nothing to do with the way of life. For example, the heredity — if family had this problem, it is likely that you have also formed. Also often affected and the sex of the person. It is known that men with cholesterol levels higher than in women. Women it increases during menopause. Age also refers to the following reasons: the older a person is, the higher the level of cholesterol.

Well, since cholesterol directly affects your heart, it must follow.

Foods that lower cholesterol

And help to lower cholesterol, can certain products.

In the first place to include in your diet olive oil. This product is a dietary contains only vegetable fats. If you used to buy the sunflower, it is likely to wean. Olive and pleasant to the taste, and is much more useful — it is easier digested and does not allow the cholesterol to exceed the norm.

Citrus products are also necessary to people who want to lower cholesterol. It’s all in the amount of pectin, which when injected into the stomach removes the extra cholesterol. This allows him not to get blood, since all the work occurs in the stomach. Most helpful to eat tangerines and oranges 30 minutes before a meal.

You also need to eat nuts. They — a real storehouse of vitamins, vegetative fats and minerals that are beneficial for the cardiovascular system. Nuts are the most effective in obesity — the product satisfies hunger, not allowing the person to overeat.

Green tea is also helpful in this regard. The reason is tannin, which controls the level of cholesterol. To reduce it by a Cup of green tea.

One of the best products in order to reduce cholesterol, can be called marine fish. You probably guess that the reason lies in the omega-3 fatty acids, which affect the whole body system and heart.

It is equally important to include in the diet of bell pepper. This product contains many vitamins which are useful for the functioning of the heart vessels, reduce cholesterol and the provision of action against sclerosis.

Useful and eggplant, which has a lot of potassium needed for cardiovascular system. Also this product helps to lower the cholesterol level.

The menu should be present bean products and carrots. They contain pectin which helps to lower cholesterol.

Useful tips:

If you want to bring cholesterol levels back to normal, you should not bite sandwiches. Choose healthy snacks — dried fruits, nuts, slices. No of sausages, which are a source of unhealthy fats. You can also replace some of the soy products that will help to normalize cholesterol.

It is necessary to abandon bad habits, to give the sport a minimum of 15 minutes a day. This will allow you to bring the weight back to normal. And as a result, all of the above measures will help to reduce cholesterol.

What is medicine?

Medicine aims to promote and maintain health and wellbeing.

Conventional modern medicine is sometimes called allopathic medicine. It involves the use of drugs or surgery, often supported by counseling and lifestyle measures.

Alternative and complementary types of medicine include acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine, art therapy, traditional Chinese medicine, and many more.

Fields of medicine

Modern medicine has many fields and aspects. Here are some of them.

Clinical practice

A clinician is a health worker who works directly with patients in a hospital or other healthcare setting. Nurses, doctors, psychotherapists, and other specialists are all clinicians.

Not all medical specialists are clinicians. Researchers and laboratory workers are not clinicians because they do not work with patients.

The physician assesses the individual, with the aim of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease using knowledge learned from training, research, and experiences, and clinical judgment.

Biomedical research

This area of science seeks ways to prevent and treat diseases that lead to illness or death.

Biomedical scientists use biotechnology techniques to study biological processes and diseases. They aim to develop successful treatments and cures.

Biomedical research requires careful experimentation, development, and evaluation. It involves biologists, chemists, doctors, pharmacologists, and others.


This field looks at drugs or medicines and how to use them.

Doctors and other health professionals use medications in the medical diagnosis, treatment, cure, and prevention of disease.


Surgical procedures are necessary for diagnosing and treating some types of disease, malfomation, and injury. They use instrumental and manual means rather than medication.

A surgeon may carry out a surgical procedure to remove or replace diseased tissue or organs, or they may use surgery to remove tissue for biopsy. Sometimes, they remove unwanted tissue and then send it for diagnosis.

This includes any practice that aims to heal but is not part of conventional medicine. Techniques range widely. They include the use of herbs, manipulation of “channels” in the body, relaxation, and so on.

Alternative and complementary do not have the same meaning:

Alternative medicine: People use a different option from the conventional one, such as using relaxation measures to improve headaches, rather than pain relief medication.

Complementary medicine: People add another treatment option to a main treatment. For example, they may use relaxation as well as pain relief medication for a headache.

Alternative and complementary therapies are often based on traditional knowledge, rather than scientific evidence or clinical trials.

Examples include homeopathy, acupuncture, ayurveda, naturopathic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

Clinical research

Researchers carry out investigations to find out which diseases are present, why they occur, what can treat or prevent them, what makes them more likely to happen, and many other aspects of health.

Clinical trials are one aspect of clinical research. They aim to find out if a therapy — often a drug — is safe and effective to use when treating a specific condition.

The most effective way to demonstrate the effectiveness of a drug or technique is to carry out a double-blind, random, long-term, large clinical human study.

In this type of study, researchers compare the effect of a therapy or drug in with either a placebo, no treatment, or another therapy or drug.


Counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and other forms of “talking cure” can be helpful for people with conditions that affect their mental health, ranging from depression to stress to chronic pain.

Anatomy: This is the study of the physical structure of the body.

Biochemistry: A biochemist studies chemical components and how they affect the body.

Biomechanics: This focuses on the structure of biological systems in the body and how they work, using a mechanical approach.

Biostatistics: Researchers apply statistics to biological fields. This is crucial for successful medical research and many areas of medical practice.

Biophysics: This uses physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology to model and understand the workings of biological systems.

Cytology: This is a branch of pathology that involves the medical and scientific microscopic study of cells.

Embryology: This branch of biology studies the formation, early growth, and development of organisms.

Endocrinology: Scientists investigate hormones and their impact on the body.

Epidemiology: Researchers track the causes, distribution, and control of diseases in populations.

Genetics: This is the study of genes and their impact on health and the body.

Histology: This involves looking at the form of structures under the microscope. It is also known as microscopic anatomy.

Microbiology: This is the study of organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye, known as microorganisms. Aspects of microbiology include bacteriology, virology, mycology (the study of fungi), and parasitology.

Neuroscience: Neuroscientists study the nervous system and the brain and investigate diseases of the nervous system. Aspects of neuroscience include computational modeling and psychophysics. Some types of neuroscience are cognitive neuroscience, cellular neuroscience, and molecular neuroscience.

Nutrition: Nutritionists study how food and drink influence health, and how they can help treat, cure, and prevent different diseases and conditions.

Pathology: This is the study of disease. A pathologist often works in a laboratory, where they do tests — usually on a sample of blood, urine, or body tissue — to help diagnose diseases and conditions.

Pharmacology: This involves the study of pharmaceutical medications, or drugs, where they come from, how they work, how the body responds to them, and what they consist of.

Radiology: Radiologists use X-rays and scanning equipment during the diagnostic procedure, and sometimes as part of treatment, too.

Toxicology: A toxicologist studies poisons, what they are, what effects they have on the body, and how to detect them.

These are not all the aspects and fields of medicine. Many people work in patient transportation, dentistry, not to mention the many different specialties that physicians can choose to follow, such as emergency medicine.


For anyone who is considering medicine as a career, there are a wide variety of options.

Qualifications, aptitude, and preference will make a particular field more attractive or suitable to an individual.

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