After heavy criticism: Spahn back row at new regulation for psychological therapies

The Minister of health, Jens Spahn from the required date of service and the public procurement act (TSVG), especially in terms of psycho-therapies in the criticism. For the mentally Ill, it poses hazards. Now Spahn back row, and is obviously willing to compromise.

With the appointment service and supply act (TSVG) to legally get patients faster in the future a doctor’s appointment. The power catalogue of statutory health insurance to include more services. And in regions in which there is no adequate medical care, Fund medical associations to open their own practices. All of the sounds for the first time after an improvement of our health care system.

Depression, sick warns of new law

But a group of patients, the law does not seem to take into account the design of Jens Spahn (CDU): the mentally ill people. Yesterday, FOCUS warned-Online-author Uwe Hauck as an Affected person: Mr. Spahn, your new law endangers people’s lives.

The current proposal of Spahn, an additional pre-investigation pre-authorisation of treatments to introduce, holds Hauck is superfluous, he said today in the ARD morning magazine. Thus, the law provides that you can only begin a course of psychotherapy, if you have previously met with a therapist who has classified a treatment as a matter of urgency. For the Concerned, this meant an additional hurdle, because mental illness is not“. To talk about the case, therefore, is particularly difficult. This could deter many victims from the outset, to seek help.

Appointment needs to be better controlled

After fierce criticism Spahn shows in his plans for the reorganisation of psycho-therapeutic treatments now seem to be willing to compromise. I do not exclude that we will find other arrangements, said Spahn in the ARD morning magazine.

Spahns design for the schedule service and supply act provides for a stepped control of the help – seekers: with Selected Doctors and therapists to decide in preliminary studies, which help or therapy, offer the Affected part should be. The help Affected, according to Spahn, the faster is the treatment. Hauck and many others that have already signed a Petition against the TSVG, on the other hand are of the opinion that A preliminary point Concerned before an additional, unnecessary hurdle.

Solution to stand until January

Spahn said it was important that people with disorders such as schizophrenia or Depression to get fast treatment. Often, the Affected would have to wait yet but on it too long. However, the waiting times were up there with the longest, where there is also most of the therapists.

Therefore, it is not rich also, only more psychotherapists for the statutory funds allow, said Spahn. He expressed the hope to find in January a solution.

Hysterectomy linked to memory deficit in an animal model

By age 60, one in three American women have had a hysterectomy. Though hysterectomy is a prevalent and routine surgery, the removal of the uterus before natural menopause might actually be problematic for cognitive processes like memory.

Researchers in the Arizona State University Department of Psychology have found rats that underwent the surgical removal of the uterus with ovaries left intact had a memory deficit, suggesting the uterus might have functions beyond reproduction. The study will be published on December 6 in Endocrinology.

A dormant and useless organ?

Endocrinology textbooks used in medical and graduate schools describe the uterus as having the sole function of accommodating and supporting a fetus or as a useless organ outside of reproduction. But, there is mounting evidence from research in animals and people suggesting otherwise.

The uterus and ovaries communicate for reproductive functions, but there are also direct connections between the uterus and the brain through the body’s autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system coordinates unconscious functions like breathing and digestion. The lesser understood uterine-brain connections could affect cognitive functions and impact how females age.

“There is some research showing that women who underwent hysterectomy but maintained their ovaries had an increased risk for dementia if the surgery occurred before natural menopause. This finding is striking,” said Heather Bimonte-Nelson, professor of psychology and senior author on the paper. “We wanted to investigate and understand whether the uterus itself could impact brain function.”

The research team used female rats to systematically test the role of the uterus and ovaries in learning and memory. The rats were divided into four groups based on the type of menopause surgical intervention. The three experimental groups were: removal of the uterus with ovaries left intact, removal of the ovaries with uterus left intact and removal of both the uterus and ovaries. The fourth group underwent a sham surgery in which no reproductive organs were removed.

Six weeks after surgery, the researchers taught the four groups of rats how to navigate a maze. Once all the rats had learned this task, the researchers tested the memory capacity of the rats. The team also looked at the reproductive organs and hormones.

“This experiment tests the role of the uterus in cognitive changes that accompany menopause. The researchers use several surgical approaches that are actually used for women who undergo oophorectomy, hysterectomy, or both. This alone is laudable,” said Donna Korol, an associate professor of biology at Syracuse University who was not part of the study. “One of the beauties of this experimental design was the sampling of different measures from the same rat, allowing for within-animal comparisons across multiple systems.”

A rodent version of the card game “concentration”

During the memory testing, the rats navigated a water maze that looked like a sunburst, with eight arms radiating out from a circular center. There were submerged platforms at the end of some of the arms, and the rats had to swim to locate a hidden platform. In the beginning of the experiment, the researchers placed four platforms for the rats to find. After a rat found a platform, the researcher removed it for the rest of the day. The rat then restarted the maze, searching for the remaining platforms while having to remember both where previous platforms had been and which arms had always been empty.

With two platforms down and two to go, the research team found the rats that had only the uterus removed could not handle the increased memory load. These rats kept returning to places where there had never been a platform, indicating they were unable to remember which arms of the maze led to platforms.

The other kinds of surgery did not affect how many mistakes the rats made in the maze. The rats that underwent the removal of just the ovaries or the removal of the ovaries plus the uterus navigated similar to the group that had the sham surgery.

“The surgical removal of just the uterus had a unique and negative effect on working memory, or how much information the rats were able to manage simultaneously, an effect we saw after the rats learned the rules of the maze” said Stephanie Koebele, ASU psychology graduate student and first author on the paper.

A hormonal jigsaw puzzle

At the end of the study, the researchers looked at the size, shape and structure of the ovaries in all the groups. The ovaries of the hysterectomy-only group were indistinguishable from the ovaries of the sham surgery group, which maintained their ovaries and uterus.

The research team also measured the amounts of different hormones in the blood, like progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Hormones are chemicals made by the body that regulate organs and body systems and send information. The hormone levels in the hysterectomy-only group were different from the sham surgery group, even though both of these groups still had ovaries.

“Even though the ovaries were structurally similar across all the groups, the hormones that were produced in the group that received hysterectomy alone resulted in a different hormone profile,” said Koebele, who has a fellowship from the National Institute on Aging for her doctoral research. “Hormones affect both brain and other body systems, and having an altered hormonal profile could impact the trajectory of cognitive aging and could create different health risks.”

Exactly how the altered hormone profile affects cognitive aging or creates health risks is complicated but is nonetheless very important to study and understand.

“Complicated does not mean impossible,” said Bimonte-Nelson, who directs ASU’s Behavioral Neuroscience of Memory and Aging lab. Her lab is currently testing whether the memory deficit after hysterectomy is reversible with time or is the beginning of a more global memory impairment.

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Being fair: The benefits of early childhood education

Children from low-income families who got intensive education early in life treat others with high levels of fairness in midlife, more than 40 years later, even when being fair comes at a high personal cost, according to a new study published today in Nature Communications.

The 78 people in the study were followed as part of the Abecedarian Project, begun in the 1970s and to this day one of the longest running randomized controlled studies of the effects of early childhood education in low-income and high-risk families.

Participants played games designed to measure their adherence to social norms and their social decision-making processes. In one game, a player was asked to split a sum of money — $20 -with another participant. The participant could either accept the amount proposed, or reject it, in which case neither received any money. When faced with unequal offers, participants had to make trade-offs between self-interest and the enforcement of social norms of equality.

This is where the value of early childhood education became apparent. Players who, in the 1970s, had been given intensive educational training including cognitive and social stimulation when they were young children, strongly rejected unequal division of money among players when they were in midlife, even if it meant they would miss out on hefty financial gains themselves.

“When someone rejects an offer, they are sending a very strong signal to the other player about the decision regarding how the money should be divided,” said Université de Montréal assistant psychology professor Sébastien Hétu, a first-author of the study. “People who received educational training through the Abecedarian Project were inclined to accept generally equal offers, but would reject disadvantageous and advantageous offers. In effect, they punished transgressions that they judged to be outside of the social norm of equality.”

Originally developed and led by Craig Ramey, a professor and distinguished research scholar at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, the Abecedarian Project investigates the impacts of intensive early childhood educational interventions on language and learning in disadvantaged children. The new research involves an international group of scientists led by Virginia Tech neuroscientist Read Montague, in whose laboratory Hétu was a postdoctoral associate before coming to Montreal.?

Using computational modeling, the study’s researchers also discovered differences in social decision-making strategies between participants. For example, in another game, players who had received educational interventions early in life planned further into the future than people who didn’t.

“The participants who received early educational interventions were very sensitive to inequality, whether it was to their advantage or their disadvantage,” said Yi Luo, first author of the study and a postdoctoral associate in Montague’s lab. “Our results also suggest that they placed more value on the long-term benefits of promoting social norms as opposed to short-term benefits for personal gain.”

She concluded: “Our research shows that investment in early childhood education, especially in the education of highly vulnerable children from low-income families, can produce long-term effects in decision-making even decades after the educational experience.”

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Why modest goals are so appealing: Achieving a small incremental goal is perceived as easier — and more satisfying — than maintaining the status quo

Thanks to a quirk in the way our brain evaluates goals, people feel it’s easier to achieve a small incremental goal than to maintain the status quo, when both goals are assessed in isolation. This is especially true if the context is seen as unfavourable.

This finding, which contrasts with the popular belief that no change is easier than any change, is the fruit of research led by marketing professors from INSEAD, IE Business School and Pamplin College of Business.

“When evaluating goal difficulty, our brain first considers the gap between the starting point and the desired state. Usually, the bigger the gap, the more difficult the goal. However, if there is no gap to speak of, as in the case of a status quo goal, the brain starts scanning the context, anticipating potential reasons for failure,” said study co-author Amitava Chattopadhyay, Professor of Marketing and the GlaxoSmithKline Chaired Professor of Corporate Innovation at INSEAD.

For example, if your goal is to keep the same weight this year, you may start considering the odds of you regularly eating out due to a high workload, the number of your upcoming business trips, the fact that a new donut shop has opened in your neighbourhood, etc.

“Our assessment of context is peculiar in the sense that it is greatly impacted by a negativity bias,” says Antonios Stamatogiannakis, Assistant Professor of Marketing at IE Business School. Our brain has evolved over the millennia to be more sensitive to bad news than good news. Most of us instinctively give more weight to potential reasons for failure than reasons for success.

When a status quo goal is directly compared to one that involves a modest improvement, objectivity prevails: The absence of a gap makes the status quo goal seems easier, as logic would dictate. Nevertheless, in such a direct comparison scenario, study participants still preferred to pursue a small incremental goal over a “maintenance” goal, as they expected this achievement to be more satisfying.

These results are described in “Attainment versus Maintenance Goals: Perceived Difficulty and Impact on Goal Choice,” a paper co-authored by Chattopadhyay, Stamatogiannakis and Dipankar Chakravarti, Professor of Marketing at Pamplin College of Business. Their paper was published in the November 2018 issue of Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

A two-step process

Across six studies, Chattopadhyay and his study co-authors showed that the brain assesses goal difficulty using a two-step process. First comes the size of the gap to be bridged. But if that gap is zero, the brain defaults to the second step, which is the context in which the goal is to be achieved. Context assessment usually triggers negativity bias, which is why, when judged in isolation, a maintenance goal is deemed more difficult than one involving a small increment.

In the first studies, participants were split into groups that each evaluated the difficulty of a particular goal type. While the difficulty of the goal was generally correlated to the gap size, goals that involved a modest increment were rated as easier than those involving the status quo (rated separately). When asked to explain their ratings, participants evaluating status quo goals were quick to mention all the obstacles that could crop up. In later studies, participants were more interested in pursuing a modest-attainment goal than to maintain the status quo, even when real money was in play.


Managers setting goals such as sales quotas should be aware that status quo goals are less attractive than ones involving a slight increment. This may be especially true if the economy is in a downturn, as a status quo goal will precisely draw the staff’s attention to the negative context and have a demoralising effect.

“Marketing-wise, promotions requiring consumers to achieve modest attainment goals, such as a small increase in a customer’s account balance in the case of a bank, may prove more popular than promotions involving no such goal,” says Chattopadhyay.

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Men see me as an exotic adventure: a wheelchair rider Laura about her love life

It took time, and some men, until you found your way in the relationship jungle. In the meantime, FOCUS-white-Online-guest author Laura Gehlhaar exactly what to expect from the love – and sees her wheelchair as an “asshole filter” that protects you from disappointments.

This specific kind of men arrive at the women at first glance, well, the can have any and all of the fucked, to see out of sheer boredom in me their personal challenge. But that is not enough for me, has never done it. Because I am very much more than that.

At the same time, I no longer strut, but also the perfect partner of your dreams – which may also mean always perfect here – to find, and I’ve learned to have no utopian expectations.

My appearance seems to have a fascinating effect

Honestly, that is just too exhausting. Because no matter how much I know what I want in a Partner, or how much I compromise’m willing to take: I can’t prevent that, in my compared To a movie going on in the Moment where he sees me sitting up.

My paradoxical phenomenon seems to many men to have a fascinating effect: On the one hand, I’m very self-aware, to make sure with my body, I’m loud and sometimes funny and seem outwardly strong and independent. On the other hand, I carry around a very obvious weakness with me. Only by my pure Appearance I spread automatically every bread that I have experienced in my life, already hard, formative times and perhaps help am in need of.

Maybe I’m hiding sometimes behind the disability

Many men are torn, in which drawer you make me now want to put: I Am the confident, beautiful, fairly clever Kodderschnauze or the limited, helpless, and unfortunately, disabled blonde?! It is a paradox, it’s confusing, it’s fascinating. And it’s fine for me.

Me, personally, it’s not different. Also, I sometimes waver in my reactions to men: If I don’t want to let criticism and pain to me, it is very tempting to push the Partner in the blame for the Failure in the shoes. If he can only deal with my disability, then we would still be together… … me, the guy finds to be stupid, but maybe just dominant, cocky, or simply, I do not look better. Just as I sometimes can imagine that for someone to find me just a little, because I’m exactly his type of woman. Maybe corner I hide in me even in those moments behind my disability, from my own insecurity, who knows.

I also reduced Sex under

Another phenomenon of my disability is that I am due to my limited mobility, reduced Sex. How is that going to work for, if you are not even able to run?, I was asked once. Or it is assumed that I can’t just be passive rumliege and the Sex anyway. Such questions and ideas are stupid. They are evidence of the lack of imagination and lack of imagination.

The Good thing about good Sex is that there is the good Sex. Each of us must discover for yourself, what feels good, where and how to get to his satisfaction and how you can give back to satisfaction of his partner, or his Partner, whether with or without a disability. A good feeling of the body, and communication skills are arguably the key to a fulfilling sex.

I lead a very fulfilling life

Because of my disability brings me on a daily basis, intensively with my body and to optimize my creativity, I lead a very fulfilling life. And since I have also achieved a good Portion of Humor, also black, is secured to the fun and the passion.

Relationship means, in addition to the common holidays, parties and morning Sex, but also work. In certain situations you have to put it back to the partner’s sake and happiness. You do not compromise, the feel but in the best case, even compromises. Because if you really love, it is also the most Beautiful, is when the other is happy. An interaction allows you to grow and to know yourself better learning.

For a long time I was ashamed to like me for my inability

With my disability I have met have often been the prejudice that my respective Partner must be received in our relationship especially a lot of compromises. My Partner, hear the sayings, like: Why are you doing this?, or Did you think about this? On one hand this is a great pity, because such rates provide the freedom of decision and, ultimately, your love for me into question. On the other hand, it leaves me but also annoyed when my Partner is glorified as the strong, courageous and caring man and people Pat him approvingly on the shoulder. Just because he has fallen in love with a woman in a wheelchair. I feel moved by it in a bad light and as a plea to be stamped.

This prejudiced behavior brought me often to the embarrassment, to want to prove the opposite. For a long time I was ashamed to like me for my constant and felt in the debt. And so I dragged myself to Festivals and concerts and went to my physical limits, and often beyond them. Or I ordered in the Restaurant, quite deliberately, no Steak, because I was in the right Hand a little force and not in front of others my Partner for help when Cutting wanted to ask.

A disability is not prevented from being an asshole

I wanted to deliver my environment no breeding ground for such prejudice, and tried and tried to be as self-sufficient as possible. Until I discovered that for me, this constant forced, my normality to prove to want to be much more strained, than be open and honest with the consequences of my disability and on the opinion of other shit. And a giant Turd.

If I get today’s message is that people attest to me a heavy, abnormal life due to my disability, I go out, more indulgent to become, just assume that these people have had no experiences with disabled people and that the media and other social authorities, a deficit-oriented image of disability and nurture. Maybe you just don’t know that disabled people are being as active and willing to compromise in relationships as their non-disabled partners. To have a disability does not have to mean less or more to put to. Just as a disability keeps one from being an asshole.

A man must for me to be brave, strong and caring be

It is a life-long gamble to a healthy equilibrium remains, as in every other relationship on this planet. Every man who is for me to decide that, in addition to some other properties also brave, strong and caring . I would choose no man who does not bring these three qualities, for me. I like these qualities in men. You do me good. Whether this is due to my disability, I do not know. I don’t know myself as an adult woman, Yes, without a wheelchair.

However, I know that I bring these traits and you would like to, accordingly, also in the case of my husband. This is probably my luck, because the other way I do not believe that ever a man I would engage in, is not brave, strong and caring.

My disability has shaped my personality

Only someone who is confident and knows what he wants and what he is good for, is to get me, a strong woman with a disability. Not because he can see by these features of my wheelchair and my disability, but because he takes due to these properties, all in the first place consciously, as a part of me that accepted and even contact me loves.

Only those who can remember, as a man by my side to yourself and know that modesty means to limit the thing – in this case, then I swings. No man who is not open to change in perspective that recognizes diversity and to appreciate, you know, would have the self-confidence to want me at his side.

Because I am me. Laura. Funny, determined, arrogant and opinionated. Committed, enthusiastic, hard-judging, and in the evening, like a delicate flower lying in bed and love hoping. My disability has shaped my personality, and I like the people, the they formed. And the Greatest thing about you: My disability is no longer automatically filter out all those who see me as a disabled person whose roll is chair as a Symbol of passivity and weakness. My disability is my personal asshole filter.

To The Person

Laura Gehlhaar was born in 1983 in Düsseldorf, Germany and studied social pedagogy and psychology in the Netherlands and Berlin. In 2008, she came for love and a Job in geriatric psychiatry, to Berlin. In 2014, she completed a mediation and coaching training (univ.) and now works as an author and Coach. She gives lectures about inclusion and accessibility and writes in her Blog, Mrs Gehlhaar about the big city life and the wheelchair ride. In September 2016, her first book, “Can you still make it?” in the Heyne publishing house.

This Text first appeared on the Blog Mrs Gehlhaar.

Incredible laws of the psyche

It’s hard to believe, but all of the following oddities of the human psyche is the explanation. Submitted 6 psychological phenomena.

The effect of the witness

Imagine that you are in public transport or in any public place, and then someone became ill. What is the probability that you will assist this person? Minimal, almost negligible. Due to the large number of people around you’re more likely to pass on to other shoulders. The probability of participation in the salvation of man is raised if there are 1 or 2 people, not a crowd. Psychologists explain this phenomenon with the reluctance to take responsibility when there are a lot of people, and some of them will certainly respond. However, I think almost everything!

The effect of Romeo and Juliet

As they say, forbidden fruit is sweet. If you are available thousands of other sweets, but you will be more desirable that is forbidden. The same law applies in the relations. People seem much more attractive if he is far away from you, or if your loved one does not give to meet. As in the story of Romeo and Juliet. It happens that people live in the neighborhood, say Hello at the meeting, but to look each other in the Internet, in any social network or chat.

The SPECIAL project. What happens in the body during love? We are excited and want to kiss why not all?

The effect of trudnodostizhimye

Often, in order to attract the attention of the person you like does not need to pamper it to their attention. Disregard one of the shortest ways to position yourself. Thus, it seems that you are too picky about friends, and you might like only selected. This means that you have necessarily a high status (material or intellectual, or both). However, to get involved in such a lesson is not necessary, as it is easy to overreact and to remain with nothing.

The Zeigarnik Effect

In 1927, Soviet psychologist Bluma Zeigarnik, vulfovna discovered a surprising property of human memory. It turns out that the ability to remember certain actions depends on their completeness. It is better to be remembered as a time incomplete actions. Zeigarnik explained this phenomenon by the fact that in the case of incompleteness of the action a person does not have necessary discharge. Today, the Zeigarnik effect successfully used in art and pedagogy.

The Pygmalion Effect

Amazingly, the success of the students (and even their intellectual abilities) to a large extent dependent on expectations of their teachers. To confirm this hypothesis, the psychologists-researchers chose several students from different classes and schools at random, not knowing about their powers. Teachers researchers told about the amazing abilities of students and talent. It is noteworthy that the disciples, on which was piled a good impression, soon showed good results, and even improve your IQ.

Halo effect

All probably know the rule: First you work on the image, then the image works for you. If you are in any situation proved to be a good side, the people around you is about you a good impression, and subconsciously, the people around you believe that you are good from all sides. Conversely, if you find yourself somewhere showed not the best side, for example, have not conceded an elderly person a place, you formed a very bad impression. This rule is especially true in higher education. If a student in the first semester, worked hard and closed the session perfectly, in the second semester he may not count some leniency on the part of the teacher.