Media coverage of disasters can have lasting effects on children’s mental health

In 2018, American children have been exposed to multiple disasters—ravaging wildfires in California, to major Hurricanes in Florida and the Carolinas, and mass shootings in schools and places of worship—all of which have been covered 24/7 by the media. Disaster communication experts at the University of Missouri say disaster media coverage can have lasting effects on children’s mental health and suggest teachers and parents be prepared to respond to questions during and after a catastrophe.

Researchers in the MU Disaster and Community Crisis Center found that teachers and parents might not be prepared to respond to students’ questions and anxieties in the aftermath of natural or human-caused disasters. The coverage can impact children’s mental health, not only in school but in response to future disasters as well.

“Teachers spend seven to eight hours a day with children,” said Jennifer First, program manager at the Disaster and Community Crisis Center and a doctoral candidate in the MU School of Social Work. “They often are the first responders, both directly and indirectly.”

The Disaster and Community Crisis Center developed a step-by-step plan with guidelines on how to discuss disasters with children. They found that teachers commonly don’t know how to answer children’s questions about disasters such as mass shootings or devastating wildfires, or explain why they happen at all.

“Images of disasters stay with kids for a long time,” First said. “That’s why it’s important to be prepared and offer helpful coping methods.”

The researchers surveyed 42 teachers on their preparation in dealing with media coverage of disasters. They also were asked what techniques they felt were needed to help students in dealing with their fears and anxieties. First and her colleagues found that many children bring concern to teachers and parents about why these terrible things happen and what can be done to stop it happening to them. The Disaster and Community Crisis Center includes instructions in their disaster intervention protocols about encouraging safety measures and helping victims. The detailed instructions can be found on their website.

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Are Joint injections with cortisone dangerous?

Why osteoarthritis patients twice üsuperior should, whether you use these or other gängige syringes want to get in your aching joints

Knee examination: osteoarthritis can cause pain

As the osteoarthritis in the knee made with swelling and pain, he hoped to relieve by means of a syringe with a established Orthopäthe. The Patient end 50 received in the joint an injection of cortisone. Nothing Special. In German practices, a alltäof the urgency procedure.

But instead of the hoped-for rapid improvement in the complications escalated. With the syringe were germs in the joint, it is infected. The knee was several times gespült, antibiotics were administered, at some point, the cartilage had to be removed.

The joint had become unusable. But that’s not enough. Bacteria in Köbody überlebt. Even after the Insertion of an artificial joint, there were more Entzündungen. The Ädoctors saw no Chance to save the leg. They amputated it.

Größte disaster Amputation

"If this happens after a cortisone injection, which is a Katastrophe", the Orthop&auml says;din Christina Otto, Lambertz, the man in the Universitätsklinikum Köln treated. "Natüof course this happens rarely, but, nevertheless, this M&ouml is;of urgency." She warns, therefore, against a frivolous treatment with injections to the knee and other joints.

As Ärztin in a großs hospital with maximum supply, you see complications after cortisone injections häoften – in contrast to the established Orthopäthe the injection most of the time. With the locally-administered active ingredient you want to the acute Entzümaking a osteoarthritis bekäfight. Occur serious complications, küthe gro&szlig inhibitors be;en clinics.

Otto-Lambertz is üassured: "In Germany, there is a Übertherapie with cortisone injections." Not only to the Ädoctors, but also to the expectations of the patients. "It is quite firmly in the Kömake anchored that the Orthopäthe syringe gets, and then it has to go one better."

Cortisone injections are already used less frequently

The German society für Orthopäthe and trauma surgery (DGOU) indicates that the Ädoctors the Problem was aware of it. The früago widespread use is already zurückgegangen. "Cortisone should zur&uuml in osteoarthritis very;cautious be used. Only in the case of an acute Entzümaking thrust and sorgfäthe genuine Abwäaside the Before – and Nachteile", the Orthopäde Professor Philipp Niemeyer, of the DGOU says.

According to the Institute für medical statistics IQVIA are cortisone injections by Orthopäin the past three years, easily rückläfrequently. From December 2016 to November 2017 were made by Orthopäthe 387 000 Corticosteroid injections for cash patients. The fünf percent less than in the same period of the previous year. The injections come in the Orthopänot only in arthritis but also in Rücover pain, shoulder injuries, or Sehnen­approach-problems.

Risks associated with corticosteroid injection

Risk of infection: With the injection köcan germs in the Köbody get

Risk cartilage: cortisone injections köcan the cartilage to reduce

Risk Hormones: Häfrequent cortisone injections köcan köthe body’s own cortisone production stören

Study: After cortisone syringe cartilage dümen

Cortisone injections in the joints, the cartilage can suffer. Dafür there was läViking notes. Now a 2017 caught in the journal JAMA veröffent­­the light of the study of attention. The authors compared injections in the Knie­­joints of osteoarthritis patients – either with the corticosteroid triamcinolone, or with Kochsalzlösung. For two years the 140 participants received all three months in each case a syringe.

The result: There was no significant difference in knee pain. But who had been treated with cortisone, had on average a 0.21 mm dünneren cartilage. In the comparison group, the joint pad had decreased by only 0.10 of a Millimeter.

Pain in the syringe is reduced only in the short term

So ergäthe study complements a 2015 veröpublished Üreview the work of the renowned Cochrane network to cortisone injections for knee osteoarthritis, für were evaluated in the trials with 1767 participants. The authors come to a ernücompressor result.

After a short-term Schmerz­reduction of üusually one to two weeks gr&ouml showed;ßEUA, sorgfäthe genuine durchgefürigidity studies, no statistically aussagekräthe busy effect.

Weak evidence für the effectiveness of

"We were üsurprised how weak the evidence für the effectiveness of sind", the main author Professor Peter J&uuml says;ni. The Swiss leads the center für Clinical research at St. Michael’s Hospital at the Universität Toronto (Canada).

How could the method nevertheless, so strong? "This is an ancient therapy, the eingeführt was before it große, according to today’s scientific Standards durchgefürigidity studies gab", J&uuml says;ni.

Cortisone schwächt locally the defense

With each injection – and sorgfäthe genuine disinfection – köcan germs in the Köbody. In the case of cortisone, the risk is still something größhe, because it is the local immune defense schwächt. How groß the risk für infections, and other complications of a cortisone-injection, unfortunately, can not be determined exactly. Experts schäthe risk daf&uuml support;r to a maximum of two percent.

Only a fraction of patients with unerwüyou want to follow a therapy to complain officially due to a treatment error. "You schätzt that it’s just 1.5 to three percent to the display bringen", Gerhard Schillinger, head of AOK in the area of medicine says.

Evaluation of incorrectly administered cortisone injection

Für a 2012 in German Ärzteblatt veröpublished study Otto-Lambertz and other authors complications to Corticosteroid injections and evaluated dafür 278 einschlägige Fälle of the expert commissions and arbitration from the years 2005 to 2009.

They discovered the following error: The therapist has not spent enough on Hygiene, the cortisone injection was the clinical picture is not appropriate, the injections were a result of in the to poet, and to not be administered as a high dose, you landed in the right place. Infections have been misunderstood, and the patient is not üabout the risks aufgeklärt.

This was part of cortisone injections in the Wirbelsäule in Rücover pain and Depot injections in the Butt muscle in the case of allergies. "If an infection of the intervertebral discs is produced, can this up in the Rüblock mark channel will continue to further complications führen, such as Lähmungen", Otto-Lambertz says.

A typical Problem with the shot in the Butt muscle: The active ingredient ends up in the muscle, but remains in the darüberlie lowing fat tissue. Then the tissue can die on the spot and große, häterrible dents.

Hyaluronsäure as an Alternative?

Many Orthopäthe syringe today Hyaluronsäure to the inhibition of the Entzümaking. The cost of the health insurance Fund not üaccepted. Für the Ädoctors is billing as an Individual health service (IGeL) in any case, more attractive.

Many Orthopäthe are from the positive effects üassured – despite widersprüdoes results of the study. Große Uni-clinics in the Viscosupple&shy are;mentation (Hyaluronsäure, which is injected into joints), however, rather skeptical gegenüber. "I know patients who say that it has brought something to you. You’re after three to four months. But others say that they have no improvement in this spüren", the Orthopäde Dr. Arnd Steinbr&uuml says;ck, a senior physician in the Orthopäthe LMU hospital in MüMunich-Großrag.

He applies Hyaluronsäure not on. After all, the substance does not harm, in contrast to cortisone the cartilage. It is, however, no "Knorpelaufbauspritze", as is often claimed. "The wäre too much versprochen", Orthopäde Niemeyer says.

Pläleaves-rich Plasma as a further Option

More and more Orthopäthe also rely on so-called Pläleaves-rich Plasma (PRP). The Patien&shy is;th, blood was collected, it is centrifuged, and then the Blutpl&auml be;leaves (platelets) in the joint injected. Also in this method, a subset of patients from a Gef&uuml reported;hl of improvement. Osteoarthritis Sufferers should know that the procedure is considerably explored, less than Viscosupplementation. And this is still controversial.

Scientists Jüni is currently working to update of a Cochrane Üreview. The last analysis of 89 studies showed that the method is as good as ineffective. Because: Only small, methodologically inferior studies, which have a low explanatory power, as indicated by the positive effects. Große, methodically better studies show no effect.

Side effects möpossible

In addition, it can in the case of injections with Hyaluronsäure or PRP to infections and other side effects. The conclusion of researchers Jüni: "Osteoarthritis patients should be sure to all other therapy Möopportunities ausschöway to the top."

What you can do for yourself

Before osteoarthritis-Affected syringes in your joints, you should do this:

  • Who is too thick, you should definitely decrease, in order to relieve the joints. Advisable also orthop&auml are;Jewish deposits, the misalignment offset, and physiotherapy. With Üexercises the muscle corset gest&auml can;be rkt.
  • In the case of acute pain, the joint should be rested, elevated and gekübe the hlt. Vorütemporarily köcan pain medications such as Ibuprofen, or even prescription stästronger painkillers are taken.

High fat diet has lasting effects on the liver

Consuming a high-fat, high-sugar diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver that may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet, according to a new study by scientists from Weill Cornell Medicine and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

For the study, published Oct. 3 in Science Translational Medicine, the investigators developed a nanosensor that can detect and noninvasively track the accumulation of fat in the liver. They used the sensor to assess the effects of a high-fat, high-sugar diet on the livers of mice. They then evaluated the outcomes when the mice returned to a healthy diet. Unexpectedly, the researchers found that, while the fat accumulation decreases after returning to a healthy diet, some residual fat remains in certain liver cells long afterwards.

“Going on a short-term unhealthy diet binge is a bad idea,” said senior author Dr. Daniel Heller, an associate professor in the Pharmacology and Physiology, Biophysics and Systems Biology program at the Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences and head of the Cancer Nanomedicine Laboratory at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. “The liver remembers.”

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects up to 30 percent of people in the United States, where a high-fat, high-sugar diet is common. Patients with NAFLD develop an accumulation of excess fat in their livers. The condition can progress to a more serious disease involving inflammation, scarring and even liver cancer (called nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH). People who accumulate fat inside liver cells called Kupffer cells, specifically a part of these cells named lysosomes that act like cellular garbage collectors, appear more likely to progress to serious liver disease.

“Fatty liver disease is a growing concern in the clinic and has rapidly become one of the top causes of liver disease in the United States and Europe,” said co-author and hepatologist Dr. Robert Schwartz, an assistant professor of medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine and an assistant professor in the Physiology, Biophysics and Systems Biology program at the Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences. “Currently, we have no medical therapies for fatty liver disease. We tell our patients to eat better and to exercise more, which, as you can imagine, is not very effective.”

Currently, some imaging tools like ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging can help identify people with fatty livers, but these techniques often provide less detailed information. Dr. Heller’s nanosensor is the first to noninvasively detect fat in the lysosomes of the Kupffer cells, potentially identifying those most at risk of progressing.

The tiny sensor is about 1,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair and made of single-stranded DNA wrapped around a single-walled carbon nanotube. Fat accumulation in the lysosomes changes the color of light emitted by the nanosensor, and was first observed in live cells in Dr. Heller’s lab by MSKCC research associate Prakrit Jena and Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences student Thomas Galassi, the first author of the paper.

When the nanosensors are injected into a mouse, the liver filters them out of the blood and then are consumed by the organ’s lysosomes. Shining a near-infrared flashlight-like device on rodents injected with these nanosensors causes the sensors to glow. The color of the light corresponds to the fat content in the liver, allowing Dr. Heller and his colleagues to measure fat non-invasively using the device.

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Witch hazel: Uses, benefits, and side effects

Witch hazel is a small tree native to the east coast of North America. Many people use it as a decorative outdoor plant.

In this article, learn about the possible benefits of witch hazel, as well as how to use it and whether there are any side effects.

Uses and benefits

Witch hazel is an astringent. People commonly use it topically, meaning they apply it directly to the skin.

Witch hazel may help treat the following conditions:


Witch hazel may help heal hemorrhoids, which are dilated veins in the anus or rectum. Hemorrhoids can cause irritation, bleeding, and discomfort.

While there is not enough evidence to prove it is effective, some people get relief by adding witch hazel to a bath. This may be due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Similarly to sunburn, bug bites and stings can cause swelling and inflammation. Applying witch hazel to the bite may reduce itching and discomfort.


Witch hazel has anti-inflammatory properties, which may help reduce discomfort from sunburn.

People can use a cloth or cotton ball to apply witch hazel directly to sunburn.

It may be especially soothing if a person mixes witch hazel with aloe vera, which is another plant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Stretch marks

Some people apply witch hazel to pregnancy stretch marks in an effort to lighten them and make them less noticeable. However, there is no research to support this use.


The astringent properties of witch hazel cause the skin to tighten and small blood vessels to constrict, which may help stop bleeding from minor cuts or nosebleeds.

Side effects

Witch hazel is safe for most people to use as an at-home treatment for some common skin issues.

Some people may have an allergic reaction to witch hazel, so it is best to test it first on a small patch of skin and monitor it for 24 hours. If there is no redness, itching, or irritation, it should be safe to apply to a larger area.


Witch hazel can be a great addition to an at-home medicine cabinet and is usually well-tolerated. It is safe for most people to use for certain skin conditions, even if the research has not yet proven its effectiveness scientifically.

However, using home remedies such as witch hazel cannot replace advice from a doctor or other healthcare provider.

If using witch hazel as a remedy does not work or the condition gets worse, it is vital that people consult their doctor for further advice.

Witch hazel is available in some pharmacies, health food stores, and online.

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