Weight change in middle-aged and elderly Singaporean Chinese linked to increased mortality risk

Both moderate-to-large weight gain and weight loss, defined as a change of 10% or more in weight, among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Singaporeans are linked to increased risk of death, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and between them, weight loss was associated with higher risk than weight gain. Furthermore, excessive weight loss increased risk among participants who were overweight or obese to start with, and excessive weight gain might increase risk even among participants with low or normal body mass index at baseline.

Nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, the researchers used data from 36,338 middle-aged and elderly participants who were able to report weight and height during interviews at both recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 (1999-2004) surveys, and who had no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease. Weight change was computed as the difference between weights at baseline and the follow-up 1 surveys, after an average of 6 years, and classified as moderate-to-large weight loss (≥10%), small weight loss (5.1-9.9%), stable weight (±5%), small weight gain (5.1-9.9%) and moderate-to-large weight gain (≥10%). The participants were followed for mortality through linkage with the Singapore Birth and Death Registry.

“This first study on a large population-based cohort of Singaporean Chinese aligns with findings from similar studies conducted among European, Japanese and Korean populations,” stated Prof Koh Woon Puay, Principal Investigator of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and Professor at Duke-NUS Medical School and Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health. “The findings suggest that moderate-to-large weight change in mid-life and older age should be monitored closely by health practitioners, and weight loss, especially, should be considered critically in elderly individuals as it may be related to loss of muscle mass, frailty and poor control of chronic diseases.”

The researchers urge caution in the interpretation of the study results, highlighting that information regarding whether the weight loss was intentional and if the weight loss was due to loss of fat or lean mass was not examined in this study. Nevertheless, findings from this Singapore study and studies in other populations suggest that it is prudent to maintain stability in body weight within the non-obese range for middle-aged and elderly populations to reduce risk of mortality.

“The observational nature of our study means we cannot generalise our findings to potential interventions at this point,” said Prof Koh. “Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the association between weight change and mortality.”

At a recent conference on ageing, longevity and health, co-organised by Duke-NUS’ Centre for Ageing Research and Education (CARE), Prof Koh presented similar findings on weight change and cognitive impairment within the same study population.

Commenting on Prof Koh’s study, Assoc Prof Angelique Chan, Executive Director of CARE, noted, “Singapore is among the world’s fastest ageing societies, therefore it is critical to build on studies such as these so the government can develop appropriate policies and programmes to guide future health outcomes.”

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Study finds higher risk of breast cancer for women after giving birth

Younger women who have recently had a child may have a higher risk of breast cancer than their peers of the same age who do not have children, according to a large-scale analysis co-led by a University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researcher.

The findings, published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, may seem contrary to conventional wisdom that childbirth is protective against breast cancer. Researchers say childbirth still does become protective, but it can take more than two decades for benefits to emerge. Breast cancer is more common in older women, with the median age of 62 at diagnosis in the United States. Researchers who led the study from the Premenopausal Breast Cancer Collaborative Group identified elevated breast cancer risk after childbirth in women younger than 55.

“What most people know is that women who have children tend to have lower breast cancer risk than women who have not had children, but that really comes from what breast cancer looks like for women in their 60s and beyond,” said UNC Lineberger’s Hazel B. Nichols, Ph.D., a professor in the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health Department of Epidemiology. “We found that it can take more than 20 years for childbirth to become protective for breast cancer, and that before that, breast cancer risk was higher in women who had recently had a child.”

Other studies have shown an increase in breast cancer risk in younger women after childbirth, but have not had access to information about other factors that might impact risk, such as breastfeeding or family history of breast cancer, researchers said. For their analysis, researchers pooled data from 15 prospective studies from the around the globe that included 889,944 women. In addition to looking at breast cancer risk after childbirth, they also evaluated the impact of other factors, such as breastfeeding and a family history of breast cancer.

They found that, in women 55 years and younger, breast cancer risk peaked about five years after they gave birth, with risk for mothers 80 percent higher compared with women who did not give birth. Twenty-three years after giving birth, women saw their risk level off, and pregnancy started to become protective. The increased risk after childbirth was higher for women who also had a family history of breast cancer or who had a greater number of births or were older at first birth. The pattern looked the same whether or not women breastfed.

“We need to recognize that the traditional risk factors for breast cancer do not always operate the same way at younger ages,” Nichols said.

While breast cancer risk increased for mothers after pregnancy, researchers also noted that the overall risk of breast cancer is still low in this group. Between the ages of 41 and 45, there were 41 more cases of breast cancer diagnosed in every 100,000 women who had given birth in the previous three to seven years compared with women who did not have children. By age 50, there 247 more cases per 100,000 women in the group that had recently given birth.

“In this age group, breast cancer is uncommon,” Nichols said. “The risk of developing breast cancer is still low overall, even if you’ve had a child five years ago.”

Their findings were also not the same for all younger women. Risk was higher for women who had their first child after 35, but there was no increased risk of breast cancer after a recent birth for women who had their first child before 25. And while pregnancy did become protective against estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer years later, it did not become protective for estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer during the study.

“This is evidence of the fact that just as breast cancer risk factors for young women can differ from risk factors in older women, there are different types of breast cancer, and the risk factors for developing one type versus another can differ,” Nichols said.

The study’s findings could be used to develop better breast cancer risk prediction models to help inform screening decisions and prevention strategies, Nichols said.

“There are many ongoing studies that are trying to improve our ability to do breast cancer risk prediction on the individual level,” Nichols said. “This is one piece of evidence that can be considered for building new prediction models.”

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Obesity, risk of cognitive dysfunction? Consider high-intensity interval exercise

It’s fast-paced, takes less time to do, and burns a lot of calories. High-intensity interval exercise is widely recognized as the most time-efficient and effective way to exercise. In a first-of-its-kind study, researchers from Florida Atlantic University have discovered another important health benefit of these short bursts of intense exercise with rest intervals. It could also be an effective strategy to prevent and combat cognitive dysfunction in obese individuals.

Obesity reduces the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein in the brain that promotes the survival of nerve cells or neurons. Lower levels of this protein are associated with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and obesity. Although studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction, the mechanisms of this relationship are not fully understood.

To-date, studies on exercise and BDNF response in obese populations have only used continuous moderate-intensity exercise without rest intervals. FAU researchers and collaborators from the University of Texas at Austin and Purdue University, are the first to examine the modulatory role of obesity on exercise-induced BDNF release and to use an acute high-intensity interval exercise protocol as a practical model to measure the phenomena of BDNF release in both obese and normal-weight subjects. They also examined the potential relationship of exercise-induced BDNF with blood lactate and cortisol.

Results of study, published in the journal Experimental Biology and Medicine, show that the BDNF response to acute high-intensity interval exercise was greater than continuous moderate-intensity exercise in obese subjects when compared to normal-weight subjects. Similarly, although acute high-intensity interval exercise induced greater blood lactate and plasma cortisol levels than continuous moderate-intensity exercise, obese subjects produced less blood lactate, but showed no difference in cortisol than normal-weight subjects.

These findings suggest that acute high-intensity interval exercise may be a more effective protocol to upregulate BDNF expression in an obese population, independent of increased lactate and cortisol levels.

Nishant Visavadiya, Ph.D., laboratory research scientist (back); and students Gabriel Pena, M.S. and Jessica Halle from FAU’s Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, examine white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes) as related to an immune response associated with chronic inflammation attributed to obesity. Credit: Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University

“High-intensity interval exercise is a time-efficient strategy with similar or superior physiological benefits that promotes the expression of a growth factor typically associated with brain health, yet that appears to be down regulated in obesity,” said Chun-Jung (Phil) Huang, Ph.D., lead author and an associate professor in the Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, in FAU’s College of Education. “The relative simplicity and efficacy of high-intensity interval exercise supports its use as a preventive measure and as an intervention to combat obesity and other chronic disease conditions.”

For the study, male subjects participated in a counterbalanced and caloric equated experiment of high-intensity interval exercise. The high-intensity interval exercise protocol consisted of a five minute walking or jogging warm-up, followed by four high-intensity intervals lasting four minutes each, followed by three minutes of active recovery followed by each high-intensity interval. Blood samples were collected prior to, immediately following exercise, and an hour into recovery for measurements of serum BDNF, blood lactate, and plasma cortisol.

Other findings from the study show statistically significant differences between the obese and normal-weight groups for body weight, BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and waist/hip circumferences and ratio. In addition, both the obese and normal-weight groups had comparable heart rate responses during both exercise protocols, demonstrating a similar relative exercise intensity and effort between groups. Therefore, the BDNF response was likely not influenced by disparities between aerobic fitness, with a greater level in obese subjects than normal-weight subjects following acute high-intensity interval exercise vs. continuous moderate-intensity exercise.

“Increased levels of cortisol have been shown to down regulate BDNF expression, however, this relationship in response to exercise still remains equivocal,” Huang. “Specifically, our study and others, did not observe any correlation between cortisol and BDNF following either acute high-intensity exercise or continuous moderate-intensity exercise protocol, yet, the report of such is opposite.”

Aerobic training has been shown to not only provide beneficial anti-inflammatory and cardiovascular benefits, but also reductions in age-related cognitive decline. It also has been shown to preserve brain volume and potentially improve blood flow.

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Tooth loss increases the risk of hypertension, heart attack, stroke

Older women who lose all of their teeth have a higher risk of developing hypertension, says a study conducted by University of Buffalo (Buffalo University) and published in the American Journal of Hypertension. His goal was to determine the relationship between oral hygiene and hypertension, which, in turn, may lead to myocardial infarction and stroke.

Numerous studies have shown a link between periodontal diseases and tooth loss with hypertension, but the nature of this relationship remains unclear.

Participants in the study were 36 692 postmenopausal women in the framework of observational studies initiative for women’s health (Womens Health Initiative Observational Study). Women undergo annual dental and medical checkups to detect hypertension, starting from the initial periodontal assessment in 1998 and until the end of 2015.

After analyzing the results the researchers found a positive link between loss of teeth and risk of high blood pressure in postmenopausal women. In particular, these women have a risk of developing hypertension during follow-up were approximately 20% higher than that of women with their teeth. Proved stronger relationship among young women and women with lower body mass index.

Although scientists are unsure of the reasons for the correlation between these two factors, they believe that tooth loss can cause changes in diet that increase the risk of developing hypertension.

We continue to study the main causes of the link between tooth loss and hypertension. Further study of the effect of tooth loss on diet, inflammation and a community of bacteria living in the mouth, can give us a deeper understanding of this connection, said study co-author Joshua Gordon (Joshua Gordon).

The study suggests that older women who had lost teeth, are a group with a higher risk of developing hypertension.

These data indicate that tooth loss may be an important factor in the development of hypertension. Further research may help us to determine the basic mechanisms, which are associated with these two common diseases, said Jean Wactawski-Vende (Jean Wactawski-Wende), one of the authors of the study.

To reduce the likelihood of developing hypertension, the researchers recommend that women at risk of losing teeth, improve oral hygiene and to take preventive measures more careful blood pressure monitoring, diet changes, physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight.

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Rural residence, poverty are risk factors for COPD

(HealthDay)—Rural residence and poverty are risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a study recently published in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Sarath Raju, M.D., from Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, and colleagues studied a nationally representative sample of adults who completed the National Health Interview Survey (2012 to 2015) to examine the impact of urban-rural status, poverty, and other community factors on COPD prevalence.

The researchers found the COPD prevalence was almost double in poor, rural areas compared with that of the overall population (15.4 versus 8.4 percent). Both rural residence and census-level poverty were associated with COPD prevalence in adjusted models (odds ratios, 1.23 and 1.12, respectively), as were indicators of household wealth. Rural residence and neighborhood use of coal for heating were also correlated with COPD among never-smokers (odds ratios, 1.34 and 1.09, respectively).

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Weight may affect the risk of flu hospitalization

Observational data for the study came from six hospitals in Mexico, and they covered 4,778 people with symptoms of a flu-like illness.

Some of these people received their treatment in the hospital, and some did as outpatients.

The results of the study showed that:

  • 43 percent of the people had a severe flu-like illness
  • 16.3 percent tested positive for flu
  • 55.2 percent tested positive for another respiratory virus
  • 28.5 percent “had no respiratory virus isolated”

When the scientists plotted the risk of hospital admission against people’s body mass index (BMI), for adults, it formed a “U” shape on the graph.

The lowest risk of hospitalization was for those with a BMI in the “normal” weight range, and the highest risk was for those in the lowest and highest BMI ranges.

Children — which the researchers defined as all those under the age of 19 years — made up 32 percent of the people in the study. The scientists saw no clear link, however, between BMI and severe flu-like illness risk in this group.

The senior author of the study is Dr. John H. Beigel. He works for Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., a firm that operates National Laboratory facilities for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Bethesda, MD. The other authors are from the NIAID and participating hospitals in Mexico.

The journal Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses has now published a paper on this study.

BMI and obesity

A person’s BMI is their weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in meters. Because it is easy to measure, researchers often use BMI to explore weight-related health risks at the population level or in very large groups.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define BMI ranges for adults as:

  • underweight is a BMI of less than 18.5
  • normal weight is a BMI of 18.5–24.9
  • overweight is a BMI of 25–29.9
  • obesity is a BMI of 30 and higher

A similar system exists for children and adolescents aged 0–19 years, except that the cutoff values depend on age and sex.

The World Health Organization (WHO) use the same BMI ranges, but not all of the same terms. For example, they use the term “pre-obesity” as opposed to “overweight” for a BMI that is 25.0–29.9.

Both the CDC and the WHO have three classes of adult obesity:

  • class 1 obesity is a BMI of 30–34.9
  • class 2 obesity is a BMI of 35–39.9
  • class 3 obesity is a BMI of 40 and higher

Population studies have linked overweight and obesity to premature death, diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers.

The CDC recommend that clinicians only use BMI for screening and not for diagnosing individuals.

Scientists and clinicians sometimes refer to class 2 as “morbid obesity” and class 3 as “severe or extreme obesity.” In the recent study, the authors used the term “morbid obesity” for a BMI of 35 and higher.

Underweight is a ‘complex issue’

While a healthful diet and lifestyle can cause someone to have a low BMI, so can eating disorders, malnutrition, and other health conditions. In a 2017 report of a Norwegian study of 30,000 people, the authors commented that underweight constitutes “a rather complex group.”

In fact, they found more people who smoke on a daily basis and just as many physically inactive people in the underweight group as the overweight group.

That study recommended that healthcare providers screen people who are underweight for health risks “to the same extent” as they would those with obesity.

The researchers behind the recent study suggest that their paper is the first published evidence that they know of to link low BMI to “severity of influenza-like illness.”

“Being underweight,” they note, “seems to be a consistent risk factor in all adult participants with influenza-like illness.”

The authors point out that a “significant limitation” of their study was that it only included people who “sought medical care for an influenza-like illness.” The results, therefore, may not represent the population at large.

They conclude:

“Clinicians should keep a patient’s body mass index in mind when evaluating risk and deciding on a course of treatment [for flu-like illnesses].”

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Type 2 diabetes linked to colorectal cancer risk in men

(HealthDay)—Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), with the association significant for men only, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in the British Journal of Cancer.

Yanan Ma, from China Medical University in Shenyang, and colleagues followed 87,523 women from the Nurses’ Health Study and 47,240 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to examine the correlation of T2D and its duration with the risk for incident CRC.

The researchers documented 3,000 cases of CRC during a follow-up of 32 years. Among men, the risk for CRC was increased for those with versus those without T2D (hazard ratio, 1.42; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.81). The positive association remained in sensitivity analyses excluding CRC identified within one year of diabetes diagnosis and excluding patients with T2D using hypoglycemic medications. Among women, there was a positive but not statistically significant association between T2D and CRC risk (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.39).

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Does HIV increase cancer risk? Types and treatment

In this article, we will look at which types of cancer people living with HIV are at greater risk of developing.

We also discuss how people with HIV can lower their cancer risk and how doctors treat cancer in these individuals.

HIV and cancer risk

HIV affects the body’s immune system by specifically targeting CD4 cells, which are a type of white blood cell. If left untreated, HIV can reduce this cell count.

Generally, the higher a person’s CD4 cell count, the better. Low levels of CD4 cells leave the body vulnerable to infections. Research from 2016 also shows that lower levels CD4 cells reduce the body’s ability to fight off early forms of cancer.

People with HIV are at higher risk of certain cancers compared with individuals without HIV. These cancers include:

Kaposi’s sarcoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma is a rare form of cancer that develops in the cells that line the mouth, nose, throat, and blood vessels.

It causes red or brown tumors, or lesions, on the skin or mucous membranes. These tumors can appear in other areas of the body, such as the legs, lymph nodes, and digestive tract.

Kaposi’s sarcoma commonly occurs in people with HIV. This is one of the conditions that healthcare providers use to diagnose stage 3 HIV.


Lymphoma is a form of blood cancer that affects the body’s lymph system. It develops in the lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell.

Lymphoma can affect any part of the body where lymph tissue is present, including the:

  • bone marrow
  • lymph nodes
  • spleen
  • tonsils
  • thymus
  • digestive tract

There are two main types of lymphoma:

  • Hodgkin lymphoma refers to lymphomas that produce a specific type of cell called a Reed–Sternberg cell. Hodgkin lymphoma usually starts developing in B cells, which are special lymphocytes that produce antibodies.
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma refers to any type of lymphoma in which the Reed–Sternberg cell is absent. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma usually starts in lymph tissue, but it can affect the skin. Like Kaposi’s sarcoma, healthcare providers use non-Hodgkin lymphoma to diagnose stage 3 HIV.

People with HIV are at higher risk of certain forms of cancer due to the effects that HIV can have on the immune system.

Some other factors that may increase the risk of cancer include:

  • smoking
  • using injected drugs
  • consuming alcohol
  • eating an unhealthful diet

Many of the cancers that people with HIV are at higher risk of are related to other viruses. For example, there is an association between:

  • Kaposi’s sarcoma and human herpes virus 8
  • anal cancer, oral cancer, and pharyngeal cancer and HPV

Co-infections, which occur when a person contracts two or more separate viruses, are more common in people with HIV.

According to a 2016 review, one-third of people with HIV also have the hepatitis C virus (HCV). A 2017 review concluded that there is a link between HCV infection and an increased risk of liver, pancreatic, and anal cancer in older people.

Lowering cancer risk

While people with HIV may be at higher risk for certain types of cancers, there are some ways to lower this risk.

Some lifestyle changes that can reduce the risk of cancer in people living with HIV include:

  • not smoking or using tobacco products
  • not using injected drugs
  • limiting alcohol consumption
  • exercising regularly
  • eating a balanced and healthful diet

Some other ways of lowering the risk of cancer in people living with HIV include:

  • taking HIV medications as prescribed
  • taking part in cancer screenings
  • getting vaccinated against cancer-associated viruses

Cancer treatment in people with HIV

Cancer treatment for people with HIV has improved due to advances in HIV treatment. In the past, healthcare providers were less likely to give full doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy due to the effects of these treatments on the immune system.

Today, people with HIV typically receive the same treatment that anybody else might. However, doctors will closely monitor the CD4 cell counts of people who are receiving both HIV treatment and chemotherapy.

Detecting and treating HIV early also significantly reduces a person’s risk of developing cancers such as Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Due to the effects that the virus can have on a person’s immune system, those living with HIV have a higher risk of developing certain types of cancer. These cancers include Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical, lung, anal, and oral cancer.

However, advances in treatment mean that detecting and treating HIV early can significantly reduce the risk of developing these cancers.

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When is the CT really necessary?

I need tatsätake the investigation? Some patients füthe radiation fear. An expert für computer tomography (CT) klärt

CT-examination: Modern computer tomography often look futuristic. Nevertheless, benöyou need Röntgenstra misconduct für the pictures

Professor Konstantin Nikolaou is science coordinator of the German Röntgengesellschaft. He is head of the Department für Diagnostic and Interventional radiology at the University hospital of Tübingen. We have questioned him on the subject of computer tomography.

Professor Nikolaou, what CT makes investigations so awkward?

In the computer tomography R&ouml come;ntgenstra miss. So nat&uuml goes;of course, a certain radiation-related risk associated. ­However, we speak here of a so-called low-dose. The average dose per CT is about 4.5 Milli-sievert. For comparison: In Germany, &shy is;every person jäannually a natünatural radiation, from an average of 2.1 millisievert exposed to.

How gefäa year R&ouml is;ntgenstra misconduct üin General?

From the experiences with the atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Naga­saki weiß you that at a radiation dose of 1000 Milli­sievert a fünfprozentiges risk für is a radiation-induced Tumor. This burden, however, is 200 times höas in the case of a Standard CT. Grundsäin addition, the method is only sensitive, if one uses it medically wrong.

Is there the risk that it will be used in the wrong way?

This risk is grundsäin addition, it should be very low. Because before any investigation gepr&uuml is;ft, if you für the patient tatsäactually makes sense. The specially-trained radiologist and not just the referring doctor. This is done in close cooperation with the attending colleagues. We radiologists prüfen with the help of all verfüavailable patient data very carefully whether the Benefits of the investigation, a möa major risk überwiegt.

How many CT examinations ­be made in Germany?

According to the Federal office für radiation protection, there were in the year 2014 in Germany 140 million Röntgenanwendungen. Of these, 6.5 million are to be attributed to CT Scans, which account for two-thirds of the total medical radiation exposure. Overall, the Trend to more cross-sectional imaging, i.e. CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

According to a study, many CT Scans unn&ouml are;tig. How do you see that?

There is certainly a Trend to Überdiagnose. So, for example, in the case of Rühide pain like pictures of the Lendenwirbelsäule made. In the first few weeks of the pain phase, but little, if no neurological Ausfälle occur. In the case of non-specific low back pain of a few weeks duration and no evidence of complications or underlying disease, you can do without imaging studies.

They believe that the Hausädoctors the CT risks?

There are various studies. One of them, for example, shows that Kinderäthe radiation dose from the radio some doctors in the logical investigations, at least in the Hähalf of the Fälle correctly einschäsupport. Other studies suggest, however, that Hausädoctors are often not informed sufficiently. Therefore, I find that the topic of radiation protection and strain in the ämedical training stäamplifier berübe taken into account mübiggest.

Children are stäamplifier gefährdet?

Yes, absolutely. The radiation risk is not the same for everyone. It hädepends on the radiation sensitivity of the tissue and from the Lebens­age. A radiation damage occurs when üin General, only with a Verzödelay of 10 to 20 years. This forces us, in the case of children zurüto be cautious, and more on ultrasound or MRI zurückzugreifen. A CT scan in children in General, only if it is really unavoidable, such as in Notfäcases.

What is the CT power in the medicine so indispensable?

The method provides the anatomy three-dimensionally in a very good rävolumetric Auflösung is. With modern CT-Geräten seconds goes quickly, and the diagnostic information is extremely high. In the case of the stroke – and Lungendia­Gnosticism, as well as in certain tumor studies, some of the classic examples of the CT-procedure, überwiegt you Use damage is usually many times any Rays. In the end, CT can save lives, but you you must use them correctly.

What would you recommend to the patient?

The Patient should ask why the investigation durchgefüis hrt and whether there are Alternatives. It is important that he säall of the prior studies and previous reports. It would make sense in a R&ouml is;ntgenpass, in all of the studies listed. So let unnöterm double examinations can be avoided.

On The Subject Of

Computer tomography: procedure and Benefits

In the computer tomography (CT) generates detailed cross-sectional images of the human

MRI: magnetic resonance imaging

Röntgenuntersuchung: a look Inside

PET (positron-Emission-tomography)

Infants born to obese mothers risk developing liver disease, obesity

Infant gut microbes altered by their mother’s obesity can cause inflammation and other major changes within the baby, increasing the risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease later in life, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

The study was published Oct. 26 in the journal Nature Communications.

“Alteration of the gut microbiome early in life may precede development of obesity instead of being caused by established obesity,” said the study’s lead author Taylor Soderborg, an MD/Ph.D. candidate in the Integrative Physiology Program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “This is the first study to show a causative role of these microbes in priming development of obesity.”

Childhood obesity is a world-wide epidemic with recent predictions saying that 57 percent of today’s children will be obese by age 35. That parallels the rate of maternal obesity which is nearly 40 percent. Obesity increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which impacts at least 30 percent of obese children. NAFLD can lead to liver failure, requiring a transplant.

In this study, researchers looked at two-week old infants born to normal weight mothers and obese mothers. They took stool samples from infants from both groups and colonized them inside germ-free mice.

They discovered that the gut microbes from babies born to obese mothers caused metabolic and inflammatory changes to the liver and bone marrow cells of the mice. Then, when fed a Western-style high fat diet, these mice were predisposed to more rapid weight gain and development of fattier livers.

“This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that changes in the gut microbiome in infants born to obese mothers directly initiate these disease pathways,” Soderborg said.

For the study’s senior author, Jed Friedman, Ph.D., MS, professor of pediatrics and neonatology at the CU School of Medicine, the findings offer potential hope for understanding how early microbes might go awry in children born to obese mothers.

“About 35 percent of these kids have NAFLD and there is no known therapy for it,” he said. “But if we can alter the microbiome we can change the course of NAFLD.”

Friedman said the study shows that the microbiome can cause the disease rather than simply be associated with it. Newborns of obese mothers, he said, could be screened for potential changes in their gut that put them at risk for NAFLD.

“If we could modify the first two weeks of the infant microbiome, we could reduce the risk of this disease,” said Friedman.

That could be done through giving the infant probiotics or other supplements.

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