It takes smokers’ hearts at least 15 years to recover after quitting

It takes smokers’ hearts at least 15 years to recover after quitting cigarettes

  • Cigarette use is declining, so there are more and more former smokers in society
  • But research into the health of former smokers is still in its infancy 
  • A team at Vanderbilt looked at data from the Framingham Heart Study which included 8,700 people in Massachusetts over 50 years
  • Half the people they studied had smoked, many were ‘heavy’ smokers (smoking a pack a day for 20 years)
  • After five years of quitting, heart disease risk dropped 38%
  • After 15 years of quitting, heart disease risk was back to normal 

Smokers will have to wait 15 years after quitting for their heart disease and stroke risk to return to a normal level, a new study has found.

Previous studies suggest former smokers’ stroke risk stabilizes within five years, but new research shows it may take triple the time.

The report, which will be presented next week at the American Heart Association conference, is the first to examine the connection in a living cohort.

After analyzing data on 8,700 people spanning 50 years, researchers at Vanderbilt found it takes well over a decade for smokers’ hearts to rid themselves of the life-threatening damage of nicotine, tobacco, and the myriad of other chemicals in cigarettes.

Unfortunately, this is the good news. The heart and blood vessels are the fastest to recover from smoking damage, explains lead author Meredith Duncan, a PhD student at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. The lungs are another story entirely.

Researchers at Vanderbilt found it takes well over a decade for smokers to get their risk of heart disease back to that of a never-smoker

Heart disease is the number one killer in every country in the world, including the US and the UK, while rates are rising (due to obesity, stress, lack of exercise, and poor diets) the number of organs available for transplant is not. 

Thankfully, one of the biggest risk factors – cigarettes – has been falling out of fashion since The Cigarette Papers was published in the early 90s, revealing the true harm they deliver.

As such, the number of former smokers is on the rise, but we don’t know a huge amount about what health risks (or lack thereof) they face.

In recent years, some have turned to vaping – a dubious and under-studied practice that has been shown to inflict the same chemical and addiction blow as combustible cigarettes. 

Many, though, went cold turkey, mostly to protect themselves and their loved-ones from the elevated cancer, lung disease, heart disease and stroke risk. 

Duncan and her team in Nashville, Tennessee, wanted to explore how long it took for that decision to start showing real health effects. 

‘There was a lack of information about what actually happens to people in the long-term based on estimates from rigorously collected data,’ Duncan told  

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To investigate, the team pooled data from the Framingham Heart Study, which started in 1948 and went on to 1975, including two generations of people, nearly half of whom were smokers. 

Duncan’s team categorized ‘heavy smokers’ as people who smoked the equivalent of one pack a day for 20 years. Heavy smokers accounted for 70 percent of heart attacks in the study. 

After five years, those who quit saw their risk drop 38 percent compared to those who hadn’t quit. 

But it took 16 years after quitting cold turkey (not cutting down) for former smokers’ cardiovascular disease risk to return to the level of never smokers.

‘For people who have smoked heavily over many years, there could be changes in the heart and lungs that don’t completely normalize,’ Duncan explains. 

‘What’s key to remember is that the actual risk of heart attack and other forms of cardiovascular disease goes down, and this is a main finding of our current study.’

Indeed, it has been well-documented that the blood vessels enjoy the first benefits of quitting smoking. 

Just 20 minutes after a person stops smoking, their heart rate and blood pressure drop to a normal level. 

Twelve hours later, the carbon monoxide levels in their blood stabilize to an undetectable level.  

Around a week later, their heart attack risk drops somewhat, because the heart and blood vessels ‘are no longer exposed to chemicals in cigarette smoke that make platelets more “sticky” and cause unwanted blood clotting,’ Duncan explains.  

Heart disease risk lingers, though. 

‘So even for heavy smokers, we cannot overstate the benefits of quitting smoking,’ Duncan says.

The next step for Duncan’s research is to take a closer look at how lung cancer risk changes over time.

‘We previously performed an analogous investigation using lung cancer as our outcome instead of [cardiovascular disease],’ Duncan says. 

‘We would like to revisit that topic, this time incorporating genetic data into our models to assess the interaction of genes and smoking habits on lung cancer risk.’ 

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Artificial intelligence predicts Alzheimer’s years before diagnosis

Artificial intelligence (AI) technology improves the ability of brain imaging to predict Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study published in the journal Radiology.

Timely diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease is extremely important, as treatments and interventions are more effective early in the course of the disease. However, early diagnosis has proven to be challenging. Research has linked the disease process to changes in metabolism, as shown by glucose uptake in certain regions of the brain, but these changes can be difficult to recognize.

“Differences in the pattern of glucose uptake in the brain are very subtle and diffuse,” said study co-author Jae Ho Sohn, M.D., from the Radiology & Biomedical Imaging Department at the University of California in San Francisco (UCSF). “People are good at finding specific biomarkers of disease, but metabolic changes represent a more global and subtle process.”

The study’s senior author, Benjamin Franc, M.D., from UCSF, approached Dr. Sohn and University of California, Berkeley, undergraduate student Yiming Ding through the Big Data in Radiology (BDRAD) research group, a multidisciplinary team of physicians and engineers focusing on radiological data science. Dr. Franc was interested in applying deep learning, a type of AI in which machines learn by example much like humans do, to find changes in brain metabolism predictive of Alzheimer’s disease.

The researchers trained the deep learning algorithm on a special imaging technology known as 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). In an FDG-PET scan, FDG, a radioactive glucose compound, is injected into the blood. PET scans can then measure the uptake of FDG in brain cells, an indicator of metabolic activity.

The researchers had access to data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a major multi-site study focused on clinical trials to improve prevention and treatment of this disease. The ADNI dataset included more than 2,100 FDG-PET brain images from 1,002 patients. Researchers trained the deep learning algorithm on 90 percent of the dataset and then tested it on the remaining 10 percent of the dataset. Through deep learning, the algorithm was able to teach itself metabolic patterns that corresponded to Alzheimer’s disease.

Finally, the researchers tested the algorithm on an independent set of 40 imaging exams from 40 patients that it had never studied. The algorithm achieved 100 percent sensitivity at detecting the disease an average of more than six years prior to the final diagnosis.

“We were very pleased with the algorithm’s performance,” Dr. Sohn said. “It was able to predict every single case that advanced to Alzheimer’s disease.”

Although he cautioned that their independent test set was small and needs further validation with a larger multi-institutional prospective study, Dr. Sohn said that the algorithm could be a useful tool to complement the work of radiologists—especially in conjunction with other biochemical and imaging tests—in providing an opportunity for early therapeutic intervention.

“If we diagnose Alzheimer’s disease when all the symptoms have manifested, the brain volume loss is so significant that it’s too late to intervene,” he said. “If we can detect it earlier, that’s an opportunity for investigators to potentially find better ways to slow down or even halt the disease process.”

Future research directions include training the deep learning algorithm to look for patterns associated with the accumulation of beta-amyloid and tau proteins, abnormal protein clumps and tangles in the brain that are markers specific to Alzheimer’s disease, according to UCSF’s Youngho Seo, Ph.D., who served as one of the faculty advisors of the study.

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It is estimated how many years after quitting Smoking normal health

Quitting Smoking took more than 15 years to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease have returned to the level of those who never smoked. This is indicated by the results of the preliminary research presented recently in Chicago at the Scientific sessions of the American heart Association (American Heart Association).

Previous studies have shown that the risk of cardiovascular disease in smokers is reduced a few years after they quit Smoking. However, previously it was not possible to trace the history of Smoking participants to note changes in the frequency of Smoking or evidence of relapse of Smoking.

In the new study, the researchers analyzed history of Smoking over a lifetime of about 8700 participants of the Framingham study (Framingham Heart Study), whose early studies have not yet been cardiovascular diseases. The average for the participants in the study were followed for 27 years. At the same time, the researchers compared the risk of cardiovascular disease in smokers, non-smokers and ex-smokers.

As a result, the researchers found that:

  • More than 70% of cases of cardiovascular disease in smokers or former smokers was observed in those who smoked a pack a day for 20 years.
  • Former smokers who quit within the past five years, the risk of developing cardiovascular disease fell by 38% compared with those who continued to smoke.
  • Overall it took 16 years from the date of refusal of Smoking to the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in former smokers returned to the same level as those who never smoked.

These results emphasize that some benefits of quitting can be seen during the first five years, as 38% reduced risk of heart attack and stroke compared with people who continue to smoke. We also found that the risk of cardiovascular disease remains elevated for 16 years after people quit Smoking compared with people who never smoked. The conclusion of the study is that if you smoke, now is a good time to quit, says Meredith Duncan, (Meredith Duncan), author of the study from the Medical center of Vanderbilt University (Vanderbilt University Medical Center) in Nashville, Tennessee.

Dmitry Kolesnik