The presence of blood in semen is called hematospermia or hemospermia. Fortunately, this symptom is not always a signal of a complex medical problem. For men younger than 40 years without any other symptoms and additional risk factors for major diseases, the presence of blood in semen is often fragmented and disappears by itself with time.
But for men 40 years and older, the appearance of blood in semen says about the need for immediate examination and treatment. Pay special attention to the presence of blood in semen if:
- are there recurring episodes of blood appearing in the semen;
- stands out blood during urination.
In such cases, the symptom may be a sign of cancer and other dangerous diseases.
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The presence of red blood cells i.e. blood in semen is an alarming sign that requires further diagnosis. The presence of blood in the semen may indicate inflammation of the seminal vesicles, prostate diseases, neoplastic and other pathological processes.
Blood can get into the semen by infection or inflammation of one of the glands or channels, on the path of your sperm.
Blood in semen: causes
Infection and inflammation
This is the most common cause of blood in semen. Blood can get into the semen by infection or inflammation of one of the glands or channels, on the path of your sperm. These include:
- glands that produce sperm;
- the urethra (channel through which urine comes out and the sperm from the penis);
- seminal vesicles.
The cause of the disease can be STD (sexually transmitted diseases) such as gonorrhea or chlamydia, or a viral/bacterial infection. Infection and inflammation are responsible for nearly 4 out of 10 cases the appearance of blood in semen.
See also:GONORRHEA in MEN: SYMPTOMS, treatments, AND POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS
Injury or medical procedures
Blood in the semen can occur after some medical procedures. For example, after prostate biopsy.
The procedures to treat problems with urination, can also cause mild trauma that leads to temporary bleeding. These symptoms usually disappear within a few weeks after the procedure. Radiation therapy, vasectomy and injection of hemorrhoids can also cause blood in semen. Physical injuries of the genital organs after pelvic fracture, injury of the testicles, excessive sexual activity or Masturbation can also lead to this problem.
Any of the channels of the urinary system may be blocked. This can lead to damage to blood vessels and leakage of blood. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, a condition in which the prostate gland increases, resulting clamped the urethra, also can cause hematospermia.
Polyps and tumors
Polyps in the genital tract, which are benign growthsand do not cause serious medical problems can also lead to hematospermia.
In one study, involving more than 900 patients with hematospermia, only 3.5% was indeed found a tumor. Most of these tumors were in the prostate gland. Although it is established that hematospermia may be associated with testicular cancer, bladder and other reproductive organs and urinary tract.
Blood vessel problems
All parts of the body that are involved in ejaculation, penetrated by blood vessels. When blood vessels damaged blood into the sperm.
High blood pressure, HIV, liver disease, leukemia, and other diseases are also associated with hematospermia.
See also: HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE. WHAT WOULD IT MEAN?
The incidence of prostate cancer in young men is low, only 0.6% of cases.
When searching for the main causes of hematospermia, your doctor may ask you about other symptoms, including:
- blood in the urine;
- burning sensation when urinating, pain;
- zatrudnennaya bladder;
- a painful ejaculation;
- swelling and tenderness of the scrotum;
- signs of genital infections;
- fever, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure.
See also:BLADDER CANCER
Blood in semen: tests and diagnosis
In the diagnosis of hemospermia should give detailed clinical evaluation, which main purpose is the non-invasive exclusion of any significant pathology if the pathology can not be detected, to reassure the patient.
To diagnose blood in the semen the doctor will collect medical history (full medical history) and will carry out medical examination. The doctor also may prescribe the following tests:
- urine analysis and urine culture to identify infection or other disorders;
- analysis for STDs;
- the condom test to check the presence of blood in semen;
- analysis of prostate-specific antigen in the blood.
Can also be assigned to other tests such as cystoscopy, ultrasound, CT and MRI for further evaluation of the patient’s condition.
Treatment of hematospermia
Therapy is aimed at elimination of reasons causing hemospermia
Antibiotics are used to fight infection. Anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to treat certain types of inflammation. If the reason for hemospermia is STD or high blood pressure, liver disease, etc., treatment will be aimed at combating these diseases.
If the doctor suspects prostate cancer or another form of cancer, he may order a biopsy of the prostate. The incidence of prostate cancer in young men is low, only 0.6% of cases. But to exclude risk factor for cancer, such testing may be appointed at any age.