Construction worker suicide rates are highest in the US, CDC study says

Males working in construction have the highest suicide rates in the country, according to a recent analysis by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Males working in construction have the highest suicide rates in the country, according to a recent analysis by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Comparing the suicides of more than 22,000 people across 17 states in 2012 and 2015, researchers found males working in construction and extraction took their lives the most often, a rate of roughly 44 per 100,000 “civilian noninstitutionalized working persons” for construction workers and 53 per 100,000 for extraction workers.


Men working in the arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media came in second — an increase of 47 percent during the years studied, according to the CDC. Installation, maintenance and repair rounded out the top three for males in 2015.

Comparatively, in 2015, women working in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media had the highest suicide rates for females, while women in protective services came in second. The third were women who worked in health care support, according to the study.

“Among both males and females, the lowest suicide rate in 2015 was observed in Education, Training, and Library occupations,” the CDC reported.

The research comes adjacent to the rising suicide rates in the U.S. overall. The health agency announced in June the rates have been rising in “nearly every state,” with 25 states reporting a more than 30 percent increase during the study period.


“Increasing suicide rates in the U.S. are a concerning trend that represent a tragedy for families and communities and impact the American workforce,” Deb Houry, the director of the CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, said in an online statement. “Knowing who is at greater risk for suicide can help save lives through focused prevention efforts.”

The study Thursday is a correction to a similar 2016 study, which mistakenly included the misclassification of some workers as farmers instead of managers.

The Associated Press contributed to this report.

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Kevin Love Explains What it Feels Like to Deal With Anxiety

As a five-time NBA All Star and Olympic Gold Medal Winner, it’s safe to say that Kevin Love is doing something right. But the 30-year-old Cleveland Cavaliers player has insecurities like anyone else. For Love, these doubts are a source of anxiety.

“I [always] had this sense that I was doing something wrong,” he explains to “I never was. I just had that feeling for no reason.”

Earlier this year, Love discussed his anxiety in an open letter published in The Players Tribune. Love’s brave essay got a lot of positive attention. After all, it’s unfortunately rare that men—let alone professional athletes—speak so openly about their mental health.

“For 29 years, I thought about mental health as someone else’s problem,” he wrote. “To me, it was form of weakness that could derail my success in sports or make me seem weird or different.”

When he was younger, Love’s anxiety “manifested in so many different ways,” he explains. “The only thing I knew was to go somewhere and have a rage-type fit.”

Getty ImagesElsa

Love finally prioritized his mental health after a panic attack sidelined him during the middle of a game.

“I thought I was dying,” he says. “It was just an out-of-body crazy experience that I’d never had before.”

Now, the NBA star wants other guys to know their masculinity isn’t threatened by mental health issues. Love partnered with Schick Hydro and the Movember Foundation to create a series of “Locker Room Talk” videos about men’s health. In one episode, Love speaks with decorated Olympian Michael Phelps about his struggle with depression. Fans can donate to the campaign, which will fund various mental and physical health programs, and win the chance to meet Love before a game.

Schick Hydro Locker Room Talk

As for his own experience with anxiety, Love describes it as a “never-ending feeling in the pit of my stomach.”

“I just have this thing sitting here that just will not go away,” he says. “For better or worse, I think it will always be there.”

Through therapy, Love has found ways to manage this unease. The athlete finds relief by working out, playing basketball and meditating.

“I use Headspace quite a bit,” he says. According to Love, the app is easy to use and offers meditations that take less than five minutes.

Love also performs a technique where he tenses every part of his body and assesses how he’s feeling. Stress and anxiety build up in his extremities, particularly the feet, and he find that breathing into those areas is relaxing.

“I’ve really learned to breathe into my body,” he says. “It sounds funny.”

Even those who don’t experience anxiety can benefit from one of Love’s strategies: He takes a couple of minutes each day to think about how he’s feeling.

“Just do a self check,” he says. “I try to do that daily.”

And if you do experience anxiety, Love encourages professional treatment.

“It’s always worth a shot,” he says. “You have to look at it like you’re investing in yourself and your happiness.”

For general information on mental health and to locate treatment services in your area, call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Treatment Referral Helpline at 1-800-662-HELP (4357).

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Rates of Mental Health Tx, Diagnosis Up for College Students

FRIDAY, Nov. 16, 2018 — From 2007 to 2017, there was an increase in the rates of mental health treatment and diagnosis among college students and a decrease in stigma, according to a study published online Nov. 5 in Psychiatric Services.

Sarah Ketchen Lipson, Ph.D., Ed.M., from the Boston University School of Public Health, and colleagues used 10 years of data from the Healthy Minds Study, which included 155,026 students from 196 campuses, to examine mental health service utilization by college students.

The researchers observed significant increases in the rates of mental health treatment and diagnosis. From 2007 to 2017, the rate of treatment increased from 19 to 34 percent, and an increase from 22 to 36 percent was seen in the percentage of students with lifetime diagnoses. Increases were also seen in depression and suicidality, while there was a decrease in stigma.

“We found that utilization increased substantially over the past decade, with much of this burden falling to campus counseling centers,” the authors write. “To better meet the mental health care demand from students and reduce strain on existing services, campuses may wish not only to expand capacity but also to increase the use of preventive and digital mental health services, such as those delivered via mobile apps.”

One author disclosed receiving consulting fees from Actualize Therapy.

Abstract/Full Text (subscription or payment may be required)

Posted: November 2018

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Infants born to obese mothers risk developing liver disease, obesity

Infant gut microbes altered by their mother’s obesity can cause inflammation and other major changes within the baby, increasing the risk of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease later in life, according to researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

The study was published Oct. 26 in the journal Nature Communications.

“Alteration of the gut microbiome early in life may precede development of obesity instead of being caused by established obesity,” said the study’s lead author Taylor Soderborg, an MD/Ph.D. candidate in the Integrative Physiology Program at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. “This is the first study to show a causative role of these microbes in priming development of obesity.”

Childhood obesity is a world-wide epidemic with recent predictions saying that 57 percent of today’s children will be obese by age 35. That parallels the rate of maternal obesity which is nearly 40 percent. Obesity increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which impacts at least 30 percent of obese children. NAFLD can lead to liver failure, requiring a transplant.

In this study, researchers looked at two-week old infants born to normal weight mothers and obese mothers. They took stool samples from infants from both groups and colonized them inside germ-free mice.

They discovered that the gut microbes from babies born to obese mothers caused metabolic and inflammatory changes to the liver and bone marrow cells of the mice. Then, when fed a Western-style high fat diet, these mice were predisposed to more rapid weight gain and development of fattier livers.

“This is the first experimental evidence in support of the hypothesis that changes in the gut microbiome in infants born to obese mothers directly initiate these disease pathways,” Soderborg said.

For the study’s senior author, Jed Friedman, Ph.D., MS, professor of pediatrics and neonatology at the CU School of Medicine, the findings offer potential hope for understanding how early microbes might go awry in children born to obese mothers.

“About 35 percent of these kids have NAFLD and there is no known therapy for it,” he said. “But if we can alter the microbiome we can change the course of NAFLD.”

Friedman said the study shows that the microbiome can cause the disease rather than simply be associated with it. Newborns of obese mothers, he said, could be screened for potential changes in their gut that put them at risk for NAFLD.

“If we could modify the first two weeks of the infant microbiome, we could reduce the risk of this disease,” said Friedman.

That could be done through giving the infant probiotics or other supplements.

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Harmful if tea with milk?

The effects of tea with milk on the human body repeatedly studied in the research. Against the use of this drink, scientists have been arguments, but to refuse tea with milk they recommend not rushing.

In Germany the experiment was conducted with 16 participants who drank cyclopamine different types of milk. The results showed that consumption of tea with any milk slows digestion. In addition, German doctors spoke about the fact that regular intake with casolaro can be harmful to the kidneys, contributing to the formation of stones.

In clinical centre Charit in Berlin the study was conducted, the entrance of which is in people who drank tea with milk and without it, the measured blood pressure. As a result, the group consumed cycloloma were recorded the worst performance.

“Milk variolinum gospodaresti to lower blood pressure. The mixture casolaro makes the blood vessels less elastic,” stated the researchers.
According to them, people who drink tea with milk in large quantities, threatening headache, weakness, kidney stones, slow metabolism. In addition, this tea is much high-calorie normal – if you drink it with sweets and dessert products to gain weight easily and quickly.

However, scientists do not hurry to call the tea with milk is harmful or dangerous. According to them, experimental data was not enough to do on ethanamide final conclusion as only harmful beverage. Besides cycloloma has health benefits. In particular, his drink is good nutraflora the stomach, helps to recover faster after an illness. Weak cassrole amount of milk is very useful for nursing mothers: drink mommy’s milk does for the baby more satisfying.

Earlier Magicforum wrote about the fact that coffee can save you from liver cancer.

Meditation helps conflict veterans with PTSD, study finds

Transcendental meditation—the practice of effortless thinking—may be as effective at treating PTSD in conflict veterans as traditional therapy, US researchers said Friday, in findings that could help tens of thousands deal with their trauma.

Post traumatic stress disorder, a debilitating condition that can lead to psychosis, bipolar disorder or suicidal and homicidal thoughts, affects an estimated 14 percent of US veterans who serve in Iraq or Afghanistan.

The most common treatment for PTSD is a process known as prolonged exposure psychotherapy, which forces sufferers to re-experience traumatic events by confronting their memories of the conflict.

Researchers from three US universities decided to look into whether more everyday techniques, which help civilians lower their stress levels and increase focus and productivity, would work on traumatised veterans.

They trialed 203 former servicemen and women with PTSD, most of whom were receiving medication for their symptoms, and randomly assigned them courses of transcendental meditation, prolonged exposure therapy or a specialised PTSD health education class.

They found that 60 percent of veterans who did 20 minutes of quiet meditation every day showed significant improvement in their symptoms, and more completed the study than those given exposure therapy.

“Over the past 50 years, PTSD has expanded to become a significant public health problem,” Sanford Nidich, of the Maharishi University of Management Research Institute, told AFP.

“Due to the increasing need to address the PTSD public health care problem in the US, UK and worldwide, there is a compelling need to implement governmental policy to include alternative therapies such as transcendental meditation as an option for treating veterans with PTSD.”

Transcendental meditation involves effortlessly thinking of an idea or mantra to produce a settled, calmer state of mind—scientists call it “restful alertness”.

Unlike exposure therapy, meditation can be practised at home, takes up relatively little time, and researchers say it would be significantly cheaper than current treatment techniques.

It also avoids forcing combat veterans to relive their trauma in a bid to get better.

“Transcendental meditation is self-empowering, and can be practised just about anywhere at any time, without the need for specialised equipment or ongoing personnel support,” said Nidich, who was the lead author of the study published in The Lancet Psychiatry journal.

‘Gave me my life back’

The main problem with existing PTSD treatment, according to Nidich, is that forcing veterans to relive their trauma means many never finish the courses.

Exposure therapy, although officially approved as a treatment by the US Veterans’ Association, is ineffective in up to 50 percent of patients and drop-out rates range from 30-45 percent.

“New treatments, including options not involving exposure to the traumatic experience, are needed for veterans who do not respond to treatment or drop-out due to discomfort,” said Nidich.

One study participant, a 32-year-old navy veteran whom authors identified only as Ms. K, said learning the meditation technique had “given me my life back.”

After being diagnosed as having suffered sexual trauma while on military service, her symptoms worsened until she drank to excess every night and sought to avoid human interaction.

After the transcendental meditation course, “I began to come out of my nightmares and face the battle I had ahead,” she said.

She added she had since applied for a job in a hospital.

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Some pharmacies thwart efforts to improve access to the opioid overdose reversal drug

In response to the opioid crisis, all 50 states have changed their laws to make naloxone, the overdose reversal drug, easier to get and use.

Many states have issued standing medication orders so pharmacists can dispense the life-saving antidote without a prescription. Cities such as Philadelphia have campaigns encouraging family and friends of people at risk of overdose to carry naloxone.

Whether this is saving lives is just beginning to be evaluated, but one obstacle is clear: Many pharmacies haven’t gotten with the program.

In California, 3 out of 4 pharmacies still required a doctor’s prescription for naloxone early this year—two years after the law was changed, according to a new study by the University of California, San Francisco. Only half the stores had the easy-to-administer nasal spray in stock.

In Texas, where big chains such as CVS and Walgreens were surveyed, more than 80 percent dispensed naloxone without a prescription—but a quarter didn’t have it in stock, a study by the University of Texas found.

Why are pharmacies a weak link in this public-health effort? “Lack of knowledge of legislation, lack of required training, stigma about substance use disorder, and time,” the California researchers wrote this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association, where both studies appear.

Recognizing ongoing access issues, a Philadelphia City Council committee on Tuesday recommended a bill that would require pharmacies to have a least one naloxone pack (with two doses) in stock. Council is expected to vote on the measure next week.

“We did a survey and found 25 percent of pharmacies don’t have it,” city Health Commissioner Thomas Farley said. “We want 100 percent to have it on hand.”

Almost 50,000 people died of opioid overdoses last year, according to federal data. In Pennsylvania, the death toll was more than 5,400, including 1,200 in Philadelphia. The epidemic has turned drug overdose into the leading cause of death among Americans under 50.

Naloxone, used by medical professionals and emergency responders for more than 40 years, reverses the potentially lethal effects of opioids, which depress breathing and induce sleepiness.

Though the most popular brand, Narcan, is not cheap—about $150 for a two-dose pack of the nasal spray—public and private insurance covers the drug, and community groups supply it for free as part of prevention programs. Philadelphia has distributed 57,000 doses through such programs since June 2017, Farley said.

On Tuesday, New Jersey launched an “opioid data dashboard” to track drug-related overdose indicators. It shows that 19,809 people in the state were given naloxone by emergency responders or police between June 2017 and September 2018. That includes 600 who died.

Eventually, the dashboard may include naloxone dispensed without prescription under the state’s standing order, said New Jersey Health Commissioner Shereef Elnahal.

The finding that most California pharmacies are ignoring that state’s naloxone access law “speaks to the stigma that still exists around opioid addiction,” Elnahal said. “We want to change that with strong public messaging.”

After Pennsylvania’s standing order took effect three years ago, community health nurses raised awareness by going to pharmacies in each county.

The impact of the order “is anecdotal at this point,” said Ray Barishansky, a deputy secretary with the state Department of Health. “But we are seeing an increase in the amount of naloxone being distributed.”

Studies are beginning to measure the effect of access laws, as well as so-called Good Samaritan laws that legally protect lay people who administer naloxone in an emergency.

In states with access laws, pharmacies dispensed 79 percent more naloxone between 2007 and 2016 than those in states without such laws, one study found. Another study linked access and Good Samaritan laws to a 14 percent reduction in opioid overdose deaths.

“It’s not a magic bullet,” said Corey S. Davis, deputy director of the Network for Public Health Law and a co-author of those two impact studies. “It’s not going to single-handedly solve the overdose crisis. But all the data we have suggest the more naloxone dispensing we have, the fewer deaths there will be.”

Davis hopes the next wave of naloxone access laws will require doctors to provide a prescription for the antidote to any patient taking opioids chronically.

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Sports and calories are beside the point! What your body weight really

Not the amount of calories, or how much we engage in sports, is the decisive factor on whether we are slim or fat, slimming, or in spite of dieting chubby. Studies show that other factors will decide.

We are all getting older? We are working on that. But there is one important factor that suppressed the overall life expectancy down: A quarter of adults is obese, so obese. In this category, people with a BMI of at least 30. Thus, the risk for many diseases of atherosclerosis, cancer, stroke increases and the life time is shortened by more than ten years.

Obesity is perhaps the most dangerous global epidemic. Each year, the number of people Affected is increasing, currently there are in Germany, according to the Robert Koch Institute, nearly 70 percent of men and every second woman.

Properly losing weight: Why diets fail because they are

Actually, these facts are inexplicable, because there are countless diets and weight reduction programs. However, most diets fail, this is known for a long time. 90 percent of the declining consent and agree to weigh even more than before the diet-attempt, are a victim of the yo-yo effect.

The reasons nutrition scientists to cover first now slowly. With the most important insight: A simple equation, which was previously considered the first and most important law for weight control, this is not true for many Obese. It read:

Overweight = the Person has eaten more calories than burned

The calorie balance for the day must be correct – a fallacy

To say, “fat is a Problem of energy balance, addiction is just as you would argue, fever comes due to a temperature imbalance,” says Andrew Greenberg, a Professor at the medical school of Tufts University and the Friedman School.

Both griffins. So fever is a defensive reaction of the body. And a negative calorie balance is not always associated with weight loss. About the many, Chubby can sing a song, lose constantly mortify and little food, but still not weight. On the other hand, there are many people who burn a day eat more than you in power and still slim.

Not a Sport burns the most energy, but the brain functions

Also the second law – who moves daily, slim device by recent studies to falter. Thus, subjects participated in a study on the subject of to lose weight with Sport and were not slim as expected. Apart from the elite sport movement is overrated as a calorie burner thus far. Not a bit of recreational sport burns a lot of calories, but in reality, our brain is a real energy-eater. It is about a quarter of the total energy consumed – although the brain only accounts for two percent of body weight.

But who thinks now, to be able to brain training and language learning diminish is wrong, unfortunately. The calorie demand will have risen only a little. Most of the energy, by the way, exclusively in the Form of glucose, is processed by the brain in the case of activities of which we are consciously aware of nothing, such as the Hormone production and the control of metabolism and organ functions.

Whether Desk workers, or gardeners: calorie needs is equal to

So the lifestyle should be a determining factor – our Western permanent Seats is often regarded as the root of the obesity epidemic. Also was able to disprove a study. Scientists compared the daily calorie needs of a typical (sedentary) Americans with those of an African tribe who lives as a collector. The calorie requirements in both groups was the same: Around 2600 kcal for men, and almost 2000 in the case of women, although originally still living Africans are constantly moving and rarely a day sitting.

Some foods make get fat, others slim

However, the collectors were slimmer than the seat of Westerners. There are several explanations. The obvious: with little movement, a lot more calories took daily, as it corresponded to your daily requirement (more than 500, what to speak permanently is likely, in any case, literally the weight of fall).

Much more influence is likely to have it, however, what foods are eaten. And the differences between the two groups. Certain foods are associated with weight gain, others with loss, says Andrew Greenberg. His studies have shown that approximately the following food lead especially quickly to Obesity:

  • Potatoes, whether boiled or fried (due to their high content of starch )
  • White flour products
  • Sugar

In contrast, support weight loss:

  • Vegetables
  • Fruit
  • Nuts
  • Yogurt

The scientist goes so far, that he who feeds in the first place with these cheap foods, so much you can eat until he is full and not still, as in the case of the collectors, who prefer primarily plant-based diet.

Fiber make calorie harmless

The explanation for this lies in the fiber, as they deliver vegetables, fruit and nuts in abundance. With indigestible ballast substances in the body calories excretes unused. Thus, the plant fiber evidence make you slim, like a further investigation.

In this study, two groups of slimming could be the same foods, willing to eat the same daily amount of calories. However, all of the grain products were in a group made of full-grain, the other peeled and processed. The full-grain group burned around 100 calories more per day – an amount that can result in a year to three kilograms of weight loss.

Key roles: metabolism and genes

Ballast substances change the metabolism positively. However, metabolism, satiety, Hunger, and the number of fat cells are not influenced. Much of this complex Interaction is due to the system. That is why some people lose weight easily, or are slim and remain so, others are struggling despite great efforts constantly against Obesity.

The brain program on the right foods

But you can hope. Because with the right diet, the appetite is changing. The desire for healthy food, which makes rather slender than thick, thus: – fiber foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole-grain rich products and protein such as fish, poultry, and yogurt. The appetite for Pizza, burgers, fries, and candy fades.

Sounds untrue? But, as a six-month study recently showed more than half of the subjects fed with the listed, high-fiber and protein – rich foods, also received tips on how to: Prior to the lunch meeting to eat, because there is always Pizza is served. The control group, however, ate normal.

In the intervals of the brain were performed scans of the test subjects, and various foods were shown. The reward center responded in the brain of subjects is becoming more and more healthy food. The appetite for full-grain and fruit grew so Fast Food appealed to. After the end of the study, the subjects lost an average of eight kilos, the control group, almost a increased.

Genetic predisposition to outwit

Even if it is biased for people who are genetically difficult to remove With the right food and a bit of perseverance it can be done anyway. Maybe it’s already a small consolation that calorie was overrated. So it is definitely easier, healthy food practical in everyday life and to be permanently, not on the Quick slim.

Hot bath may improve inflammation, metabolism: Study

A two-week treatment period in which the men participated in daily hot-water baths showed a reduction of fasting blood sugar and insulin levels as well as improved low-grade inflammation at rest.

Hot water bath may help in weight loss. (Source: File Photo)

If you are unable to exercise, a hot water treatment may help improve inflammation and blood sugar (glucose) levels, particularly in overweight men, suggests a new study.

Physical stress such as exercise can increase the level of an inflammatory chemical (IL-6), which activates the release of anti-inflammatory substances to combat unhealthily high levels of inflammation, known as chronic low-grade inflammation.

However, a hot-water immersion may “improve aspects of the inflammatory profile and enhance glucose metabolism in sedentary, overweight males and might have implications for improving metabolic health in populations unable to meet the current physical activity recommendations”, said researchers including Christof Andreas Leicht from the Loughborough University in the UK.

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For the study, published in the Journal of Applied Physiology, the team included a group of sedentary, overweight men who participated in both hot-water immersion and ambient room temperature (control) trials separated by at least three days.

In the hot water trial, the volunteers sat immersed up to their necks in 102-degree Fahrenheit water. The research team measured the men’s heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature every 15 minutes throughout both the control and immersion conditions. Blood samples were taken again two hours after each session.

The researchers found that a single hot-water immersion session causes the elevation of IL-6 levels in the blood and increased nitric oxide production, but did not change the expression of heat shock protein 72 — another protein suggested to be important for health.

However, a two-week treatment period in which the men participated in daily hot-water baths showed a reduction of fasting blood sugar and insulin levels as well as improved low-grade inflammation at rest.

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What is medicine?

Medicine aims to promote and maintain health and wellbeing.

Conventional modern medicine is sometimes called allopathic medicine. It involves the use of drugs or surgery, often supported by counseling and lifestyle measures.

Alternative and complementary types of medicine include acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine, art therapy, traditional Chinese medicine, and many more.

Fields of medicine

Modern medicine has many fields and aspects. Here are some of them.

Clinical practice

A clinician is a health worker who works directly with patients in a hospital or other healthcare setting. Nurses, doctors, psychotherapists, and other specialists are all clinicians.

Not all medical specialists are clinicians. Researchers and laboratory workers are not clinicians because they do not work with patients.

The physician assesses the individual, with the aim of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease using knowledge learned from training, research, and experiences, and clinical judgment.

Biomedical research

This area of science seeks ways to prevent and treat diseases that lead to illness or death.

Biomedical scientists use biotechnology techniques to study biological processes and diseases. They aim to develop successful treatments and cures.

Biomedical research requires careful experimentation, development, and evaluation. It involves biologists, chemists, doctors, pharmacologists, and others.


This field looks at drugs or medicines and how to use them.

Doctors and other health professionals use medications in the medical diagnosis, treatment, cure, and prevention of disease.


Surgical procedures are necessary for diagnosing and treating some types of disease, malfomation, and injury. They use instrumental and manual means rather than medication.

A surgeon may carry out a surgical procedure to remove or replace diseased tissue or organs, or they may use surgery to remove tissue for biopsy. Sometimes, they remove unwanted tissue and then send it for diagnosis.

This includes any practice that aims to heal but is not part of conventional medicine. Techniques range widely. They include the use of herbs, manipulation of “channels” in the body, relaxation, and so on.

Alternative and complementary do not have the same meaning:

Alternative medicine: People use a different option from the conventional one, such as using relaxation measures to improve headaches, rather than pain relief medication.

Complementary medicine: People add another treatment option to a main treatment. For example, they may use relaxation as well as pain relief medication for a headache.

Alternative and complementary therapies are often based on traditional knowledge, rather than scientific evidence or clinical trials.

Examples include homeopathy, acupuncture, ayurveda, naturopathic medicine, and traditional Chinese medicine.

Clinical research

Researchers carry out investigations to find out which diseases are present, why they occur, what can treat or prevent them, what makes them more likely to happen, and many other aspects of health.

Clinical trials are one aspect of clinical research. They aim to find out if a therapy — often a drug — is safe and effective to use when treating a specific condition.

The most effective way to demonstrate the effectiveness of a drug or technique is to carry out a double-blind, random, long-term, large clinical human study.

In this type of study, researchers compare the effect of a therapy or drug in with either a placebo, no treatment, or another therapy or drug.


Counseling, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and other forms of “talking cure” can be helpful for people with conditions that affect their mental health, ranging from depression to stress to chronic pain.

Anatomy: This is the study of the physical structure of the body.

Biochemistry: A biochemist studies chemical components and how they affect the body.

Biomechanics: This focuses on the structure of biological systems in the body and how they work, using a mechanical approach.

Biostatistics: Researchers apply statistics to biological fields. This is crucial for successful medical research and many areas of medical practice.

Biophysics: This uses physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology to model and understand the workings of biological systems.

Cytology: This is a branch of pathology that involves the medical and scientific microscopic study of cells.

Embryology: This branch of biology studies the formation, early growth, and development of organisms.

Endocrinology: Scientists investigate hormones and their impact on the body.

Epidemiology: Researchers track the causes, distribution, and control of diseases in populations.

Genetics: This is the study of genes and their impact on health and the body.

Histology: This involves looking at the form of structures under the microscope. It is also known as microscopic anatomy.

Microbiology: This is the study of organisms that are too small to see with the naked eye, known as microorganisms. Aspects of microbiology include bacteriology, virology, mycology (the study of fungi), and parasitology.

Neuroscience: Neuroscientists study the nervous system and the brain and investigate diseases of the nervous system. Aspects of neuroscience include computational modeling and psychophysics. Some types of neuroscience are cognitive neuroscience, cellular neuroscience, and molecular neuroscience.

Nutrition: Nutritionists study how food and drink influence health, and how they can help treat, cure, and prevent different diseases and conditions.

Pathology: This is the study of disease. A pathologist often works in a laboratory, where they do tests — usually on a sample of blood, urine, or body tissue — to help diagnose diseases and conditions.

Pharmacology: This involves the study of pharmaceutical medications, or drugs, where they come from, how they work, how the body responds to them, and what they consist of.

Radiology: Radiologists use X-rays and scanning equipment during the diagnostic procedure, and sometimes as part of treatment, too.

Toxicology: A toxicologist studies poisons, what they are, what effects they have on the body, and how to detect them.

These are not all the aspects and fields of medicine. Many people work in patient transportation, dentistry, not to mention the many different specialties that physicians can choose to follow, such as emergency medicine.


For anyone who is considering medicine as a career, there are a wide variety of options.

Qualifications, aptitude, and preference will make a particular field more attractive or suitable to an individual.

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