Weight change in middle-aged and elderly Singaporean Chinese linked to increased mortality risk

Both moderate-to-large weight gain and weight loss, defined as a change of 10% or more in weight, among middle-aged and elderly Chinese Singaporeans are linked to increased risk of death, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and between them, weight loss was associated with higher risk than weight gain. Furthermore, excessive weight loss increased risk among participants who were overweight or obese to start with, and excessive weight gain might increase risk even among participants with low or normal body mass index at baseline.

Nested in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, the researchers used data from 36,338 middle-aged and elderly participants who were able to report weight and height during interviews at both recruitment (1993-1998) and follow-up 1 (1999-2004) surveys, and who had no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease. Weight change was computed as the difference between weights at baseline and the follow-up 1 surveys, after an average of 6 years, and classified as moderate-to-large weight loss (≥10%), small weight loss (5.1-9.9%), stable weight (±5%), small weight gain (5.1-9.9%) and moderate-to-large weight gain (≥10%). The participants were followed for mortality through linkage with the Singapore Birth and Death Registry.

“This first study on a large population-based cohort of Singaporean Chinese aligns with findings from similar studies conducted among European, Japanese and Korean populations,” stated Prof Koh Woon Puay, Principal Investigator of the Singapore Chinese Health Study, and Professor at Duke-NUS Medical School and Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health. “The findings suggest that moderate-to-large weight change in mid-life and older age should be monitored closely by health practitioners, and weight loss, especially, should be considered critically in elderly individuals as it may be related to loss of muscle mass, frailty and poor control of chronic diseases.”

The researchers urge caution in the interpretation of the study results, highlighting that information regarding whether the weight loss was intentional and if the weight loss was due to loss of fat or lean mass was not examined in this study. Nevertheless, findings from this Singapore study and studies in other populations suggest that it is prudent to maintain stability in body weight within the non-obese range for middle-aged and elderly populations to reduce risk of mortality.

“The observational nature of our study means we cannot generalise our findings to potential interventions at this point,” said Prof Koh. “Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the association between weight change and mortality.”

At a recent conference on ageing, longevity and health, co-organised by Duke-NUS’ Centre for Ageing Research and Education (CARE), Prof Koh presented similar findings on weight change and cognitive impairment within the same study population.

Commenting on Prof Koh’s study, Assoc Prof Angelique Chan, Executive Director of CARE, noted, “Singapore is among the world’s fastest ageing societies, therefore it is critical to build on studies such as these so the government can develop appropriate policies and programmes to guide future health outcomes.”

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15-Year-old, apparently, by Iphone in the bath fatal accident

Young people with Smartphone in the bathtub and dies

In the past week, died in Russia, a young girl in the bath, because your Smartphone fell into the water. The iPhone is the 15-Year-old hung during the use of the charging cable. Russian experts had previously warned of the dangers of mobile phones in the bathrooms.

Smartphone fell into the water

The 15-year-old Irina Rybnikova from Bratsk in Siberia (Russia), died last Saturday in her bathtub at an electric shock. According to a report in the English newspaper “The Sun” was killed the girl while bathing, as your iPhone has been recharged with a cable, fell into the water. Family members found the lifeless young people in the water. This was not the first case of death caused by electronic devices in the bathtub.

Similar tragedies in the past

The newspaper report that the teenage girl in their home was as a successful Martial artist in the area Pankration is known, a mixture of Boxing and Wrestling.

“You dreamed to one day become a world champion,” said a friend of the girl.

Your 25-year-old sister Tatiana told the local newspaper “Komsomolskaya Pravda: “Our hearts are broken.”

And your sports Association said it was a “tragic accident”.

This would have been avoided if the Smartphone would not have been on the cable connected to the power supply.

According to the “Sun” had warned Russian security officials previously against the hazards due to the Charging of mobile phones in the bathrooms.

This is probably because it already came in the past to similar accidents.

So the Russian school girl Kseniya P. suffered in February, in the bathroom electric shock, as your charging Smartphone fell into the water.

And in France, a 21-pregnant woman in your bathroom, in France, had been killed in the previous month, only a few days before the birth due to an electric shock.

Not with the electricity grid devices connected in the bathtub use

Who uses a cell phone in the bath water, it should connect never to the power supply to the Load.

“Everything that has a connection to the home network of 230 volts, it should only be used in large distance to the bath used,” said Dieter Haentzsch, a Professor in the field of “Electrical plants and devices” at the University of applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, according to a report in the portal “tech book”.

But: “battery-powered devices such as Smartphones, Laptops and E-Book Reader because of the low voltage is no danger in the water,” says the expert. You may not hang, but the charging cable.

After a shock to the doctor

A electric shock, do not to people can have dramatic consequences – even if it takes place in the water.

So, among other things, a life-threatening heart rhythm problems may occur, leading to sometimes flicker in a chamber.

The heart no longer beating so fast, it is pumping effectively, the blood in the circulatory system. The result can be a sudden cardiac arrest.

In addition, there is the risk that the lung muscles go into spasm, which leads in the worst case, to respiratory arrest due to the electricity.

Health experts advise to go after an electric shock to the doctor, even if it is a supposedly well. Because cardiac arrhythmias can also occur too late.

Study affirms geographic discrimination in allocating lungs for transplant

Results of a medical records study of more than 7,000 patients awaiting a lung transplant in the United States affirm the basis of a court filing in 2017 that called the organ allocation system geographically “rigged” in some regions of the nation.

In a report, published online Nov. 15 in the American Journal of Transplantation, the Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers who conducted the study say the findings hold lessons for further improving the current lung allocation system, as well as the process for assigning other organs for transplant.

“Patients everywhere suffer from donor shortages, and we all want to do whatever is possible to most efficiently allocate organs to the sickest people most likely to benefit and survive,” says Errol Bush, M.D., a member of the research team and the surgical director of the Advanced Lung Disease and Lung Transplant Program at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

The new analysis, he says, demonstrates that for U.S. patients awaiting a lung transplant prior to 2017, where you lived or received your health care may have unintentionally been more important than how sick and likely to benefit you were when it came to how long you had to wait for a donor organ.

“The data told us that where transplant candidates live unfortunately had (and continues to have) a huge impact on the probability of receiving a transplant,” says Martin Kosztowski, M.D., M.P.H, a research fellow at Johns Hopkins and first author of the new paper. “And it means that patients who have the resources to travel to a different donor service area (DSA) or list at multiple centers are at an advantage.”

The older allocation system, operated under policies set by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), was in place for many years, Bush says, and was tweaked in response to the 2017 court filing in a New York case.

The lawsuit was brought on behalf of a young woman on the transplant waiting list who claimed that she was being unfairly discriminated against because of her location — New York City. Less sick people just across the Hudson River in New Jersey, the suit claimed, were receiving organs faster. The UNOS guidelines called for donor lungs to be assigned to the sickest patients on a regional basis, a system designed to use donor organs locally because of time constraints. Lungs that became available within any one of 58 DSAs would first go to someone waiting within that region, even if there was a sicker patient elsewhere.

But the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York filing claimed the guidelines were needlessly discriminatory, and in response, the UNOS changed its policy so that lungs would be offered to the highest-ranking candidate within 250 nautical miles, rather than within DSA boundaries.

In an effort to put more evidence behind that filing and other calls for allocation changes, Bush says, he and his colleagues analyzed data on 7,131 patients over the age of 12 who were awaiting lung transplants in the U.S. between Feb. 19, 2015, and March 31, 2017 — all under the old allocation system.

The data included each patient’s lung allocation score (LAS), a number used to determine transplant priority between 0 and 100 based on how sick a patient is and how likely the patient is to survive a transplant. The higher the lung allocation score, the more in need a patient is and the more likely that patient will be to die without receiving a lung transplant. Each year more than 2,000 lung transplants are performed nationwide.

The researchers calculated lung transplant rates by LAS in each DSA across the country by tallying the number of transplants performed divided by the number of active person-years spent waiting in a given LAS category (0-32, 32-34, 34-38, 38-42, 42-50 and 50-100).

The ratio in lung transplant rates between any two DSAs ranged from 1.0 (for DSAs with identical rates) to 21.73 — someone in one DSA would be nearly 22 times more likely to receive a lung than someone in the other DSA with the same LAS.

On average, Bush says, there was a 2.05-fold difference between the lung transplant rates in any pair of DSAs. This meant that moving from one DSA to another actually had more of an impact, on average, than jumping between some LAS categories — the difference in transplant rates between an LAS of 38-42 and 42-50 was 1.54 fold, for instance.

The Johns Hopkins researchers note that the findings clearly back up the complaint of the 2017 lawsuit — the lung transplant rate for patients with an LAS of 50-100 (the LAS category of the lawsuit plaintiff) in New York City was 3.2 lung transplants per person-year, while the rate in New Jersey for that LAS category was 12.49, almost four times higher. The researchers also note that Arizona and parts of Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina had some of the highest transplant rates compared with other states.

Moreover, the disparity between locations rose over the course of the study — the average difference between transplant rates in any two DSAs was 1.69 in 2006 and 2.10 in 2016.

While the new study didn’t analyze the new 250-mile-radius allocation system, the researchers suspect it may still hold some of the same biases, since it’s still based on location. Certain places in the country, Kosztowski points out, have much higher organ donation rates because of the rising drug overdose pandemic or deaths due to traumatic events, as well as trends in local donor organizations communicating with families and communities about the importance of organ donation.

“That 250-mile radius is still arbitrary, and won’t necessarily fix the problem,” says Kosztowski. “We certainly want to assess the new system to see whether it’s improved things. Ideally, a transplant candidate shouldn’t have to worry about where they get on the transplant list.”

The findings may also hold true for the way other organ allocation systems assign transplants based on location.

The demand for lung transplants continuously outpaces donations, and nationwide there are generally more than a thousand patients waiting for a lung at any time. For every hundred patients on a waitlist for one year, about 15 die. Patients waiting for lung transplants — as well as those who have just received transplants — cost the health care system thousands of dollars a month.

Although lung transplantation is a large operation and can be pricey, improvement in quality of life for patients and their families is worth it, say the researchers. Currently, lung transplant recipients at Johns Hopkins benefit from an almost 97 percent likelihood to live for at least one year after transplant.

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A solemn diet: Why cinnamon at Christmas is also helpful in losing weight

Classic spice in the Christmas kitchen: Better Ceylon or Cassia cinnamon?

Cinnamon is a spice of several classic Christmas. But be sweet to fiery Aroma is not only the Christmas biscuits a special touch, but also exotic curries and Chutneys. The delicious spice brings various health benefits and even helps with weight loss.

Healthy Christmas Spice

Cinnamon is a classic spice in the delicious Christmas cuisine. Be sweet to fiery Aroma, refined Christmas cookies, biscuits and gingerbread, winter fruit compote, baked apples, mulled wine and punch. And also spicy dishes like Indian curries and Chutneys gives cinnamon a distinctive touch. It is a part of spice mixtures such as the Indian “Garam masala” and the Chinese “Five spice powder”. The popular spice is not only very flavorful, but also extremely healthy.

For the prevention and treatment of Diabetes

Cinnamon was already in the ancient times because of its health benefits. As before, the spice is used for digestive complaints such as bloating.

It is a disinfectant, reduce acting, as well as the blood sugar levels and cholesterol levels. In addition, cinnamon stimulates the metabolism, which is helpful if you want to accelerate the weight loss.

According to health experts, the spice is also one of the foods that help prevent Diabetes.

Furthermore, cinnamon is good for the intestines.

Too much coumarin of the damage to health can

However, one also knows by now that cinnamon can damage and in larger amounts – the health. Due to the contained coumarin.

This substance can cause, in high doses, including liver and kidney damage. Some people react even to small amounts of sensitive.

As the Federal centre for nutrition (BZfE) reported on its website, the tolerable daily intake (tolerable daily intake, TDI) of 0.1 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

Therefore, a person weighing 60 kilograms would be able to absorb without adverse effects on health six daily milligrams of coumarin. That’s the equivalent of two grams of Cassia cinnamon daily.

In the case of small children the TDI will be reached already after six cinnamon stars, or 100 g of gingerbread on the day.

In Ceylon cinnamon is much less coumarin is contained in Cassia cinnamon.

Who used often and a lot of cinnamon, for example, for milk rice, should therefore prefer Ceylon cinnamon.

However, the search is more difficult, because the variety does not need to be on the Cinnamon package. Only some of the providers to give the cinnamon places on a voluntary basis.

In the supermarket cheaper Cassia is mostly cinnamon, while Ceylon cinnamon to food, especially in Fine – and Asian shops will be sold.

Ceylon cinnamon is of a better quality than Cassia cinnamon

As the BZfE explains that cinnamon is made from the inner bark of the cinnamon tree, which belongs to the family of the evergreen Laurel family.

Although there are several hundred different species, but on the European market Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and Cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are only of importance.

As the Name suggests, native to Ceylon-cinnamon from Ceylon, today’s Sri Lanka. The particularly high-quality “True cinnamon” has a fine, pleasant, spicy Aroma and is usually processed into Cinnamon sticks.

Cassia cinnamon comes, according to the BZfE from China. It tastes bitter to slightly sweet and come here mostly to powder grinding in the trade.

In the case of Cinnamon sticks, the difference is clearly visible. Ceylon-rods consist of a number of fine cattle were, the appearance in cross-section like a truncated cigar.

In the case of Cassia cinnamon a relatively thick layer of Bark is rolled up into a roll.

Cinnamon, up to three years, rods are durable, if they are well sealed. Ground cinnamon should not be air-tight and dark-stored, so it loses its flavor. (ad)

In the case of a diet: the Delicious Christmas spice is also helpful in losing weight

Classic spice in the Christmas kitchen: Better Ceylon or Cassia cinnamon?

Cinnamon is a spice of several classic Christmas. But be sweet to fiery Aroma is not only the Christmas biscuits a special touch, but also exotic curries and Chutneys. The delicious spice brings various health benefits and even helps with weight loss.

Healthy Christmas Spice

Cinnamon is a classic spice in the delicious Christmas cuisine. Be sweet to fiery Aroma, refined Christmas cookies, biscuits and gingerbread, winter fruit compote, baked apples, mulled wine and punch. And also spicy dishes like Indian curries and Chutneys gives cinnamon a distinctive touch. It is a part of spice mixtures such as the Indian “Garam masala” and the Chinese “Five spice powder”. The popular spice is not only very flavorful, but also extremely healthy.

For the prevention and treatment of Diabetes

Cinnamon was already in the ancient times because of its health benefits. As before, the spice is used for digestive complaints such as bloating.

It is a disinfectant, reduce acting, as well as the blood sugar levels and cholesterol levels. In addition, cinnamon stimulates the metabolism, which is helpful if you want to accelerate the weight loss.

According to health experts, the spice is also one of the foods that help prevent Diabetes.

Furthermore, cinnamon is good for the intestines.

Too much coumarin of the damage to health can

However, one also knows by now that cinnamon can damage and in larger amounts – the health. Due to the contained coumarin.

This substance can cause, in high doses, including liver and kidney damage. Some people react even to small amounts of sensitive.

As the Federal centre for nutrition (BZfE) reported on its website, the tolerable daily intake (tolerable daily intake, TDI) of 0.1 milligrams per kilogram of body weight.

Therefore, a person weighing 60 kilograms would be able to absorb without adverse effects on health six daily milligrams of coumarin. That’s the equivalent of two grams of Cassia cinnamon daily.

In the case of small children the TDI will be reached already after six cinnamon stars, or 100 g of gingerbread on the day.

In Ceylon cinnamon is much less coumarin is contained in Cassia cinnamon.

Who used often and a lot of cinnamon, for example, for milk rice, should therefore prefer Ceylon cinnamon.

However, the search is more difficult, because the variety does not need to be on the Cinnamon package. Only some of the providers to give the cinnamon places on a voluntary basis.

In the supermarket cheaper Cassia is mostly cinnamon, while Ceylon cinnamon to food, especially in Fine – and Asian shops will be sold.

Ceylon cinnamon is of a better quality than Cassia cinnamon

As the BZfE explains that cinnamon is made from the inner bark of the cinnamon tree, which belongs to the family of the evergreen Laurel family.

Although there are several hundred different species, but on the European market Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) and Cassia cinnamon (Cinnamomum aromaticum) are only of importance.

As the Name suggests, native to Ceylon-cinnamon from Ceylon, today’s Sri Lanka. The particularly high-quality “True cinnamon” has a fine, pleasant, spicy Aroma and is usually processed into Cinnamon sticks.

Cassia cinnamon comes, according to the BZfE from China. It tastes bitter to slightly sweet and come here mostly to powder grinding in the trade.

In the case of Cinnamon sticks, the difference is clearly visible. Ceylon-rods consist of a number of fine cattle were, the appearance in cross-section like a truncated cigar.

In the case of Cassia cinnamon a relatively thick layer of Bark is rolled up into a roll.

Cinnamon, up to three years, rods are durable, if they are well sealed. Ground cinnamon should not be air-tight and dark-stored, so it loses its flavor. (ad)

Cisplatin Superior to Cetuximab for HPV+ Oropharyngeal Cancer

MONDAY, Dec. 17, 2018 — For treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive low-risk oropharyngeal cancer, cetuximab shows no benefit compared with the standard cisplatin regimen in terms of reduced toxicity and results in worse tumor control, according to a study recently published in The Lancet.

Hisham Mehanna, Ph.D., from the University of Birmingham in the United Kingdom, and colleagues conducted a phase 3 trial at 32 head and neck treatment centers in Ireland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Adult patients with HPV-positive low-risk oropharyngeal cancer were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy (70 Gy in 35 fractions) plus either intravenous cisplatin (166 participants; 100 mg/m² on days 1, 22, and 43 of radiotherapy) or intravenous cetuximab (168 participants; 400 mg/m² loading dose followed by seven weekly infusions of 250 mg/m²).

The researchers found that overall (acute and late) severe (grade 3 to 5) toxicity was similar between treatment groups at 24 months (P = 0.98). Similarly, overall all-grade toxicity did not differ significantly by mean number of events per patient (P = 0.49) at 24 months. However, cisplatin and cetuximab differed significantly in two-year overall survival (97.5 versus 89.4 percent; hazard ratio, 5; P = 0.001) and in two-year recurrence (6 versus 16.1 percent; hazard ratio, 3.4; P = 0.0007).

“Cisplatin and radiotherapy should be used as the standard of care for HPV-positive low-risk patients who are able to tolerate cisplatin,” the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry.

Abstract/Full Text

Posted: December 2018

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How to Have the Ultimate Day at Mickey's Very Merry Christmas Party

How to Have the Ultimate Day at Mickey’s Very Merry Christmas Party

There are few things more magical than Disney World during the holidays. If you’re a major fan of Christmas and also extremely obsessed with Magic Kingdom, then Mickey’s Very Merry Christmas Party just might rank as your all-time favorite Disney experience (and as a born and raised Orlando, FL, kid who practically grew up in Tomorrowland, I can fully attest to its magic). From the festive songs ringing throughout the park to the endless holiday treats, this event is the perfect way to jump into the holiday spirit. Here are some tips on how to make the most of your magical night!

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UK’s second life sciences sector deal tackles ageing and early diagnostics

Researchers in the UK will collect a range of data from five million healthy volunteers to develop diagnostic tests using AI and other cutting-edge technologies to detect and diagnose diseases earlier in a study thought to be the largest of its kind.

The new programme was unveiled in a new deal between the UK government and the life sciences sector, backed by more than £1.3bn of investment, announced at the beginning of December.

Sir John Bell, Regius Professor of Medicine at the University of Oxford, will lead the Accelerating Detection of Disease initiative, which will see experts look into how the health of a group of participants changes over time to identify common characteristics that would help them understand how and why diseases develop.

“In years gone by, the idea of eliminating smallpox, managing HIV or curing Hepatitis C seemed impossible and yet we are living in an age where the risks associated with these diseases have been either eliminated or greatly reduced.

“The programme announced today will set us on the path to new medical breakthroughs, innovative treatments, and longer lives, cutting down suffering in the future,” the professor wrote in a recent blog.

The study will also support the delivery of the Early Diagnosis Mission, part of the UK Industrial Strategy’s AI and Data Grand Challenge. Businesses will be able to access the £79m in funding that the government is pledging for the programme through competitions managed by UK Research and Innovation.

“The project will support research, early diagnosis, prevention and treatment across the major diseases, including cancer, dementia and heart disease.

“This will be a ground-breaking national health programme that will develop new diagnostic tests through applying leading-edge AI and other cutting-edge technologies. It will attract additional global investment from the sector,” according to the Office for Life Sciences and the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy.

Other announcements include a commitment from global biopharmaceutical company UCB to invest £1bn in R&D in the UK over the next five years. A new £150-200m R&D facility will be built, supporting around 650 jobs, mainly in scientific research and early manufacturing.

Meanwhile, Roche will also invest a further £30m in the UK, with £20m over the next three years in a precision cancer research partnership with the Christie NHS Foundation Trust in Manchester.

Twitter: @1Leontina
Contact the author: [email protected]

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Messages via blink: Special blink may mean

Eye impact says more than words

“You cannot not communicate”, said Paul Watzlawick in his basic rules of human communication. This Thesis is also shown in a recent study on the blink. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for psycholinguistics investigated, as part of responding participants, when your conversation partner winks either in short or in longer intervals.

A current study by the Max-Planck Institute for psycholinguistics, suggests that the breaks between the eyes can have a shock effect on the reaction of the interlocutor. The results indicate that longer breaks between the blink of suggests the Opposite, that you understand, what you are told. Short blink breaks indicate more of a lack of understanding. The results of the study were recently published in the journal “Plos one”.

The non-verbal communication with the eyes blow

Per Minute a person blinks ten to 15 times. In spite of the frequency of the eyes, shock, hardly anyone takes this movement consciously – and yet we seem to have our counterpart with the frequency of eye blinks to communicate. The speech behavior is influenced, among other things, how often we blink, so the research team to study leader Paul Hömke. In communication tests showed that frequent blink to longer answers animate of led and long blink-pause, rather shorter answers.

The expiration of the study

The Team Hömke had 35 participants with computer-generated conversation partners to communicate without the subjects knew the inside and the subjects, what is at stake in the study. The digital conversation partner, the researchers avatars called, the Participants certain questions, such as: “What did you do this weekend?”

The unconscious feedback about the eyes, stroke

While the Participants answered the avatars reacted either with short or long pauses between the Eyes shots. This showed that the responses in average were several seconds shorter, if the Avatar made long pauses between the Eyes shots. However, the answers were longer, if more was blinked.

What is the eye stroke conveys

The linguistics researchers have a theory, like the blink influenced the course of the conversation. Long eyelashes beats would give the conversation partner the feeling to be understood, which those tend to take a short run. Short breaks suggest, however, that he has not understood what is being said, which tells Against rather a more detailed Version. According to the researchers, this is a new factor for mutual understanding in the everyday social interaction. (vb)

Filmmaker, 28, ate NOTHING last Christmas Day to get his ripped body

Man, 28, claims he can go up to EIGHT DAYS without food to get his ripped physique and ate NOTHING last Christmas (so how dangerous is the ‘snake diet’?)

  • Phil Flock set himself a two-month target to get in shape at the end of last year
  • Accidentally drank a sugary ice tea on December 23, thinking it was diet
  • Triggered carb withdrawals that made him decide to fast over the festive season 
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A man ate nothing over Christmas Day as part of a controversial diet to help him get the ripped body he has always dreamed of.

Phil Flock, 28, set himself a two-month target to get in shape at the end of last year after his hectic career as a filmmaker left him without the time to work out.

After cutting out all carbs, Mr Flock, who is originally from Haan, Germany and now lives in California, made an unintended slip up at Christmas party on December 23 when he drank a sugary ice tea, thinking it was diet.  

This mishap plunged Mr Flock into carb withdrawals that led him to make the drastic decision to start fasting on Christmas Eve and consume nothing but a drink on December 25 evening. 

Mr Flock, who lifts weights every day, now follows the so-called ‘snake diet’. This involves him fasting for up to eight days at a time, with just water to fuel his body. 


Phil Flock embarked on the controversial snake diet that saw him eat nothing over Christmas to help him get the ripped body he always dreamed of. Pictured left on day one, Mr Flock claims he saw the effects almost immediately and his physique was transformed by day 121 (right)

The snake diet encourages followers to consume nothing but ‘snake juice’ within just a one-to-two hour window for up to three days at a time.

The controversial drink is made up of water, salt, potassium chloride, baking soda and magnesium sulphate salts. Followers claim this helps to deplete sugar levels in the liver, which then encourages the body to burn fat as energy.

Although they allege it can reverse type 2 diabetes and even clear up acne, critics warn the drastic diet may be extremely dangerous.

Experts claim fasting for up to 72 hours is unhealthy and will result in dieters putting weight back on as soon as they start eating normally.

  • My gravy meltdown and how it led to my Alzheimer’s… NHS has paid private consultants £26MILLION to ‘review… How much sugar does your favourite Christmas tipple contain?… Baby born at 23 weeks weighing just one-pound was so…

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Mr Flock decided it was time for a drastic change after his weight slowly started to creep up over eight years.

‘During school I was a sports trainer and a physical education teacher,’ he said. ‘But later in time I had to decide what I wanted to do with the rest of my life, so eventually I switched to my other favourite interest in life which was filmmaking.

‘Eventually I quit my job and started to work on my career as a filmmaker. So, for the past eight years I was focusing on my job and I totally ignored my fitness.

‘By the end of 2017, I realised I needed to bring my personal life and my professional life in balance to improve my fitness.’ 




Pictured left before starting the diet, Mr Flock blames his hectic job as a filmmaker for him not having the time to work out. Since cutting out all carbs and going eight days without eating, Mr Flock is in better shape than ever (seen right) and claims his body has been ‘cured’ of illness

Mr Flock, along with some of his friends, set himself an eight-week target to shape up, which was going well until the mishap on December 23. 

‘It was very hard for all of us but after a couple of weeks we got used to it because the carb withdrawals eventually stopped and we had great results within weeks,’ he said. 

‘The withdrawals which make you want to vomit all the time are the hardest part when you cut carbs.’ Mr Flock even compares carbs to ‘an addictive drug’.

With the December 23 incident triggering carb withdrawals, Mr Flock discovered the snake diet, which involves fasting for prolonged periods of time and existing on just one meal every few days. 

‘The carb withdrawals started again the next morning, so I researched how I could get back into ketosis faster,’ he said. ‘Ketosis is the process when the body uses ketones out of fat for energy, instead of carbs.

‘That’s when I discovered fasting and the snake diet. I learned that if I fasted for 36 hours, I would be back into ketosis and then I could just continue with my no carb diet, so I did.’




Mr Flock set himself a two-month target to get in shape (pictured left before starting the drastic diet). After accidentally having a sugary drink on December 23 last year, he decided to consume nothing but a drink on December 25, which he credits for his abs (seen right)


Mr Flock (pictured after embarking on the snake diet) believes society is ‘addicted’ to carbs and experiences withdrawals in the same way as someone with a drug dependency. Since cutting them out, he claims his blood pressure has regulated and his ‘inflammation’ reduced

WHAT IS THE SNAKE DIET? AND IS IT DANGEROUS?

The snake diet encourages followers to consume nothing but ‘snake juice’ for prolonged periods of time.

The controversial ‘eating’ plan’s website claims totally abstaining from food or calories helps the body break down fat. 

Snake juice consists of:

  • Water
  • Sodium chloride (Himalayan pink salt)
  • Potassium chloride
  • Baking soda
  • Magnesium sulphate (food grade Epsom salts, optional) 

Followers allege this kick starts the liver to break down sugar stored in the organ, which then enables fat elsewhere in the body to be used for energy.

The diet encourages people to drink snake juice within a one-to-two hour window for ‘as long as you feel good’, recommending they start with a 48-hour fast and then repeat with a 72-hour one.

Its website claims everyone can benefit from the diet, adding it is ‘like pushing the reset button at the cellular level’.

It lists the potential benefits as: Weight loss, reversal of type 2 diabetes, ‘ramped up’ metabolism, skin tightening, clear skin and ‘cellular cleaning’ 

But critics argue there is is no evidence fasting for such prolonged periods of time is safe, with followers only gaining weight once they start eating as normal again. 

Registered dietitian Julie Upton told Women’s Health: ‘I would not recommend it to anyone for even a short-term trial, as it is not based on any clear evidence nor does it have any clinical evidence that is peer-reviewed to support the programme’.

She even described the idea of cleaning sugar out of the liver as ‘100 per cent BS’, adding that the organ’s role is to process toxins.

Keen to get back into a state of ketosis as quickly as possible, Mr Flock’s willpower got him through the festive season without indulging in any seasonal treats.

‘I spent two Christmas dinners without food, so I could get back into ketosis as fast as possible, and they were the hardest days ever, but I made it,’ he said.

‘It was really hard to not eat anything all day and sit at the table, seeing all of the delicious food, knowing I had to wait 24 hours until I could eat again. 

‘But that wasn’t the hardest part – the hardest part was being judged all the time.’

Eager to achieve imminent results, Mr Flock fasted for 36 hours and carried on with the controversial diet when the festive season ended. 

‘I continued doing research on fasting and I learned that it has so many other benefits rather than just fat loss, so I started having one meal a day until the end of the eight-weeks of not eating carbohydrates,’ he said.

‘When the results started showing and I had a six pack, I felt great and was full of energy. So, I extended my fasts to 48 hours without food. 

‘The longest I’ve fasted for was eight days where I only drank water, which had sodium and potassium.

‘I am pretty lean right now, so I have one small no carb meal a day, unless the meal becomes bigger than I intended so then I fast for 48 hours to maintain my body weight.

‘Through fasting I have regulated my blood pressure, cleared my skin of acne, cured my body from inflammation and my joints no longer hurt. I don’t drink coffee anymore, but my mind is still boosted all the time.’

Mr Flock even cuts out water to achieve his ripped physique.   

‘Once a week I like to do a 48-hour dry fast where I don’t have water and my longest dry fast was 80 hours,’ he said.

Mr Flock exercises every day and can manage seven pull ups with just one arm. The length of his workouts reduces as his stage of a particular fast progresses. 

He added: ‘Losing weight is no rocket science but people like to overthink everything. If a lazy guy like me can do it, anybody can.’




Mr Flock loves his six-pack and has just a nine per cent body fat. He now goes more than a week without food at a time and even does not drink water for up to 40 hours. Mr Flock wants to encourage people that losing weight ‘isn’t rocket science’ and ‘anyone can do it’

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